Los equipos caninos policiales. Importancia de los criterios de selección, entrenamiento, certificación y rendimiento

Autores/as

Paola A. Prada-Tiedemann, Texas Tech University; Jorge Ulises Rojas-Guevara, Policía Nacional de Colombia; Juan David Córdoba Parra, Uni- versidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (U.D.C.A.); Gabriel Antonio Bohórquez, Policía Nacional de Colombia; Martha Ximena Ochoa Torres, Policía Nacional de Colombia
Palabras clave: Equipos caninos, entrenamiento canino, rendimiento, test de selección, impulsos, perros detectores de sustancias, perros verdes, certificación canina

Sinopsis

La Policía Nacional de Colombia (PNC), en el desarrollo de programas educativos que emplean equipos caninos (perro-manejador), utiliza pruebas de selección fundamentales para determinar cuáles animales son Aptos o No Aptos para iniciar el adiestramiento, continuarlo y finalizar su certificación. Por lo anterior, los objetivos de esta investigación son: 1) Proponer un conjunto de indicadores etológicos para evaluar el perro detector de sustancias, a partir de una prueba empírica de campo con base a instrumentos; y 2) Determinar los criterios de calificación para el perro detector de sustancias durante el proceso de asociación, potenciación y certificación para cada una de las pruebas evaluadas. Esto permite que los instrumentos se validen para que sean confiables, y predecir los perros que aprueban o desaprueban las evaluaciones comportamentales, aportando al desarrollo de los programas académicos. Para alcanzar el propósito del estudio, se efectúa un análisis univariado al utilizar tablas de contingecia de 2x2, estimando la sensibilidad y especificidad para cada una de las pruebas realizadas en los caninos detectores de sustancias narcóticas y explosivas (n=549); determinar los valores predictivos de los test: nstrumento No 1 (test-retest), Instrumento No 2 (potenciación y asociación) e Instrumento No 3 (certificación final). Para así, establecer el nivel de acuerdo a los evaluadores (Kappa de Cohen) mediante la correlacionacción de las 17 variables comportamentales individuales y agrupadas para predecir los caninos “Aptos” y “No Aptos” para el servicio policial. Dentro de los principales hallazgos se evidencia una sensibilidad y especificidad altas, con resultados estadísticamente significativos para la mayoría de las variables comportamentales analizadas individualmente (P<0,05). Siendo la “perseverancia”, la prueba que más influye en los test antes del adiestramiento (Kappa de 1,0), además de un nivel de acuerdo “casi perfecto” entre los evaluadores para la mayoría de las pruebas, prediciendo en un alto grado los caninos Aptos y No Aptos para el servicio policial (Perros No Aptos en la certificación final, n=12; 3%). Es fundamental que los programas académicos que emplean binomios, validen sus pruebas, al establecer cuáles son las variables más representativas para cada evaluación en particular. Lo cual mejora y ajusta los instrumentos de acuerdo a las necesidades de cada institución o especialidad del servicio canino, disminuye costos y mejora los estándares de calidad, al depender del contexto operativo a desempeñar por cada binomio.

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Biografía del autor/a

Paola A. Prada-Tiedemann, Texas Tech University

Recibió su Ph.D. en Química con una concentración en ciencias forenses de la Universidad Internacional de Florida en 2010. Fue galardonada con la Beca de Investigación Postdoctoral de la Comunidad de Inteligencia (IC) de 2010, financiada por la Oficina del Director de Inteligencia Nacional. Sus estudios posdoctorales han unido áreas interdisciplinarias como la química, el comportamiento animal y la seguridad nacional para abordar temas críticos para la inteligencia efectiva y las capacidades en defensa. Ha trabajado extensamente en el desarrollo de métodos instrumentales para la identificación de olores humanos para investigaciones criminales. También ha trabajado con la detección de olores caninos en el contexto de la optimización de las técnicas de recolección de olores para fines de entrenamiento. Sus intereses de investigación incluyen la evaluación de compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COV) de olor humano como una herramienta discriminatoria forense, así como la prueba de analitos de olor objetivo de varias muestras de importancia forense para un rendimiento óptimo de los sistemas para detección biológica (caninos). Ha laborado con agencias policiales, gubernamentales nacionales e internacionales para ayudar a desarrollar mejores técnicas instrumentales y de capacitación en diversas áreas en la detección de olores. Es autora y coautora de numerosas publicaciones en revistas, capítulos de libros y un libro dedicado por completo a la evidencia del olor humano. Presentó su investigación en varios foros nacionales e internacionales. Es miembro de la American Chemical Society y de la American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Correo electrónico: paola.tiedemann@ttu.edu (correspondencia con el autor).

Jorge Ulises Rojas-Guevara, Policía Nacional de Colombia

Es médico veterinario de la Universidad de la Salle (1998), Especialista en Servicio de Policía (2007), Magister en Ciencias Veterinarias (2013) y finalizó su PhD en Educación en Nova southeastern University (2017). Trabaja actualmente como Decano de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas de la Dirección Nacional de Escuelas de la Policía Nacional de Colombia y es oficial de la institución en el grado de Mayor. Ha laborado durante los últimos 15 años con equipos caninos especializados en diferentes tareas del servicio policial, creando los instrumentos de evaluación para la selección de perros y realizando aportes a las mejores prácticas y el rendimiento, como estrategia para impactar la seguridad rural en el posconflicto, mediante publicaciones en revistas indexadas y libros. Actualmente es el director del grupo de Investigación: “olfateando el conocimiento”, categorizado como investigador asociado, reconocido por el Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (actual COLCIENCIAS). Participa activamente en proyectos que giran en torno a las ciencias forenses aplicadas por medio de los binomios (guía-canino), siendo sus intereses de investigación el olor residual de cadáveres y los caninos detectores de animales silvestres, validando la confiabilidad de las pruebas en campo. Además, se ha desempeñado como instructor, evaluador; certificador y ponente, en el marco de la cooperación Nacional e Internacional contra el Sistema de drogas ilícitas, estableciendo una sinergia operacional interinstitucional en contra de los Grupos Armados Organizados. Correo electrónico: jorge.rojas@correo.policia.gov.co (correspondencia con el autor).

Juan David Córdoba Parra, Uni- versidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (U.D.C.A.)

Es médico veterinario de la Universidad de La Salle (2008), Magíster en Ciencias Mención Salud Animal de la Universidad Austral de Chile (2010), Especialista en Gerencia en Mercadeo de la Universidad Politécnico Grancolombiano (2016) y actualmente estudiante de Doctorado en Agrociencias de la Universidad de La Salle. Ha trabajado desde el 2011 a la fecha como docente en el área de salud y bienestar animal en la Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (U.D.C.A.) y la Universidad de La Salle. En la actualidad es docente de tiempo completo y coordinador de investigación en la Especialización de Bienestar Animal y Etología de La Fundación Universitaria Agraria de Colombia (UNIAGRARIA). Trabaja desde el 2016 con la Empresa Legal & Tierras Consultores S.A.S. como consultor y director veterinario. También realiza consultoría privada en Salud y Bienestar Animal en Cundinamarca, Boyacá y otros departamentos de Colombia.

Gabriel Antonio Bohórquez, Policía Nacional de Colombia

Es mando del nivel ejecutivo de la Policía Nacional de Colombia, 21 años de servicio, técnico profesional en seguridad integral canina de la Escuela de Guías y Adiestramiento Canino, programa acreditado en alta calidad por el Concejo Nacional de Acreditación (CNA) del Ministerio de Educación de Colombia. Además es técnico profesional en gestión humana y desarrollo comunitario, egresado del SENA, psicólogo Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia (UNAD), con 11 años de experiencia como docente investigador de la Dirección Nacional de Escuelas, investigador Junior COLCIENCIAS, instructor K-9 de la Gendarmería de Chile, instructor K-9 de la Policía Nacional de Colombia, ha participado en la creación del programa de caninos de terapia asistida con caninos en la Policía Nacional, equipos K-9 detectores de fauna silvestre en Colombia, colaboró como autor del libro Manual para el entrenamiento de caninos en la Policía Nacional, el libro Tras las huellas de los guías caninos de la Policía Nacional, y el libro Uso y entrenamiento de equipos K-9 detectores de fauna silvestre. Asimismo, fue conferencista y ponente en temas de bienestar animal y tenencia responsable de mascotas.

Martha Ximena Ochoa Torres, Policía Nacional de Colombia

Es Médico Veterinario Zootecnista de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia
(UPTC), candidata a Magister en Ciencias Veterinarias de la Universidad de la Salle, se desempeña actualmente como Médico Veterinario de la Escuela de Guías y Adiestramiento Canino de la Policía Nacional de Colombia, donde ha desarrollado labores como docente investigador siendo parte de proyectos institucionales relacionados con equipos caninos detectores de sustancias en las diferentes modalidades de servicio de Policía. Participa activamente en proyectos en torno a las Ciencias forenses aplicadas a los binomios (guía-canino), siendo sus intereses de investigación las pruebas de
evaluación y los indicadores etológicos en el perro detector de sustancias, ha publicado artículos en revistas indexadas como “la importancia de la discriminación de olor en el entrenamiento de los equipos caninos detectores de sustancias: Impacto de su evaluación para la certificación final”.

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Publicado
May 4, 2020