Estudios forenses con análogos humanos: evaluación de la descomposición y búsqueda del olor residual con caninos

Autores/as

Jorge Ulises Rojas Guevara, Policía Nacional de Colombia; Paola Alexandra Prada Tiedemann, Texas Tech University; Katherine C. Titus, Texas Tech University; Juan David Córdoba Parra, Universidad de la Salle; Gabriel Antonio Bohórquez, Policía Nacional de Colombia
Palabras clave: olor residual, investigación criminal, olor humano, ciencia forense, descomposición, prueba doble ciego

Sinopsis

Este libro es producto del grupo de investigación: “olfateando el conocimiento”, perteneciente a la Escuela de Guías y Adiestramiento canino de la Policía Nacional de Colombia, en colaboración con el Instituto de Ciencias Forenses de la Universidad Tecnológica de Texas (TTU). El capítulo 1, recoge experimentos con análogos humanos (Sus Scrofa) detectables con equipos caninos, evaluando mediante una doble prueba ciega la sensibilidad y especificidad de los hallazgos en los sitios donde se encontraba un cadáver, con el fin de determinar la existencia del olor residual, además valida la respuesta del perro y su manejador, mediante aparatos aéreos no tripulados y cuyos perros fueron certificados con restos óseos humanos. El capítulo 2, analiza los efectos de la envoltura corporal de los cerdos frente a la tasa de descomposición, con el fin de comprender en la práctica real cuando un cuerpo es descubierto en la escena del crimen, si dicha información es crucial para que los investigadores criminales establezcan, cuál es el Intervalo Post Mortem (IPM). El enfoque académico y experimental, analiza los esfuerzos tangentes para presentar posibles soluciones a los trámites de inspección de cadáveres o los posibles sitios asociados a los hechos donde una persona puede morir. Para concluir, articula diferentes campos del conocimiento dentro de las ciencias forenses aplicadas con caninos, permitiendo una alta fiabilidad para el posterior abordaje en trabajos operativos reales de personas desaparecidas o en casos de homicidio, con el fin de e impactar los delitos que afectan la convivencia y seguridad de los ciudadanos en Colombia. 

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Biografía del autor/a

Jorge Ulises Rojas Guevara, Policía Nacional de Colombia

He a veterinarian doctor (DVM) graduated from the Universidad de La Salle (ULS) and is currently a lecturer there as a doctoral thesis tutor. Rojas-Guevara is a Specialist in Police Service at the National Police of Colombia, a Master in Veterinary Sciences from ULS and a PhD in education from Nova Southeastern University. He currently works as an Operational Commander of the Guania Police Department. Dr. Rojas has served as a teacher, instructor, evaluator and certifier of canine equipment in the National Police of Colombia (NPC), evaluating dog teams which detect narcotic and explosive substances in the United States of America, the Netherlands, and Paraguay. Currently, he is a Major in the NPC with 19 years of active service. He has held positions as commander of a police Immediate Attention Center (CAI) in Bogota, commander of the canine unit in Bogota, head of dog breeding, teacher, head of an academic area, subcommander of a station, dean, head of the information and dissemination group for research at the Graduate School of Police, editor of the journal Logos Ciencia & Tecnología (indexed by Publindex in category B), and Operational Commander of Citizen Security. Currently, he directs a master’s thesis at the public security program of the Graduate School of Police and his research interest is assessment instruments for cadaver dog selection, certification, and their detection capabilities, as well as their performance in detecting associated crimes such as rape,
illicit drug-trafficking, and the evaluation of canine detectors of animal species. Part of this research proposes the Animal Species Trafficking System (SITEA). His previous research tends to contribute to best practices and performance improvement of canine teams. Dr. Rojas has published several articles in indexed magazines and his latest book Police Canine Teams: Importance of Selection Criteria, Training, Certification and Performance was a work funded by Texas Tech University in partnership with the NPC. He is currently the director of the research group “Sniffing Knowledge,” categorized
as an associate researcher and recognized by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The group actively participates in think groups, interest groups and projects related to cadaver dogs, dog teams that detect different animal species (illegal traffic of reptiles, mammals and birds), the standardizing of protocols related to these, and validating them with double-blind tests. Email: jorge.rojas@correo.policia.gov.co

Paola Alexandra Prada Tiedemann, Texas Tech University

Dr. Tiedeman received her PhD. in chemistry with an emphasis in forensic science from Florida International University in 2010. She was awarded the Postdoctoral Research Fellowship of the Intelligence Community (IC) in 2010, funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Her postdoctoral studies have brought together interdisciplinary areas such as chemistry, animal behavior, and national security to address critical issues for effective intelligence operations and for the country’s defense capabilities. Dr. Tiedeman has worked extensively on developing instruments and methods for identifying human odors for criminal investigations; she has also worked with canine odor detection in the context of optimizing odor collection techniques for odor training purposes. Her research interests include evaluating human odor volatile compounds as a forensic discriminating tool as well as testing target odor analytes on various samples of forensic importance for optimal performance of biological (i.e., canine) detector systems. She has worked with national and international law enforcement and government agencies to help develop better training and techniques in various areas of odor detection. She is the author and co-author of numerous magazine publications, book chapters, on book devoted entirely too human odor-based evidence, and another devoted to the selection, training, and certification criteria for canine equipment. Dr. Prada has
been a speaker and presented her research in various national and international forums. She is a member of the American Chemical Society and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Email: paola.tiedemann@ttu.edu

Katherine C. Titus, Texas Tech University

She is a college student at Texas Tech University working toward a bachelor’s degree in sociology. Her interest in this research is to determine “when a body is discovered at the crime scene” and to obtain crucial information for criminal investigators to establish the Post Mortem Interval (IPM). This is a challenging process because the human decomposition process is highly susceptible to the influence of a wide variety of factors. Therefore, it is a very exciting topic, which she will probably continue investigating with the advice of Dr. Paola Prada and Dr. Jorge Rojas-Guevara.

Juan David Córdoba Parra, Universidad de la Salle

He is a veterinarian from Universidad La Salle ULS (2008), Master of Science in Animal Health from Universidad Austral de Chile (2010), Marketing Management Specialist from Universidad Politécnico Grancolombiano (2016), and currently a PhD student in Agro-Sciences at ULS. He has worked since 2011 as a teacher in the area of animal health and welfare at the Universidad de Ciencias Ambientales y Aplicadas (U.D.C.A.) and at ULS. He is currently a full-time lecturer and research coordinator in the Animal Welfare and Ethology Specialization program of the Fundacion Universitaria Agraria de Colombia (Uniagraria). He has been working since 2016 as a veterinarian consultant and vet director at Legal & Tierras Consultores S.A.S. He also performs private consultancy in animal health and welfare in the departments of Cundinamarca, Boyacá, and other regions of Colombia. 

Gabriel Antonio Bohórquez, Policía Nacional de Colombia

He is an Intendent at the NPC with 21 years of experience in citizen security and coexistence, operational security with K-9 teams, a teacher and social researcher in the responsible possession of pets and animal welfare, and a psychologist at the Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia (UNAD). He is a master’s degree candidate in education at the Universidad Militar Nueva Granada (UMNG), a Professional Technician in Comprehensive Canine Security at the School for Canine Guidance and Training (a program accredited with high quality by the National Accreditation Council (CNA) of the Colombian Ministry of Education), a professional technician in human management and community development graduated from SENA technical school. He has experience as a research professor at the National Directorate of Schools, the NPC, and received the recognition of “junior researcher” from COLCIENCIAS. He is also a K-9 instructor graduated from the Gendarmerie of Chile, and a K-9 instructor of the NPC. He has participated in the creation of the canine assisted therapy program at the
National Police, of K-9 teams that detect wildlife in Colombia, and he has collaborated as co-author of the book Manual for canine training at the National Police of Colombia, the book Footsteps of the canine guides of the National Police of Colombia and the book Use and training of K-9 wildlife detectors teams. He has been a lecturer and speaker on issues of animal welfare and responsible pet ownership.

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Publicado
December 15, 2020