Epistemological conception of the role of the media in education *

 

Concepción epistemológica del rol de los medios de comunicación en educación*

 

Concepção epistemológica do papel da mídia na educação *

 

Luzmary Belandria Osma ** 

Mawency Vergel Ortega ***

Zulmary Carolina Nieto Sánchez ****

 

Universidad de Los Andes - Venezuela **

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander - Colombia***

Universidad de Santander - Colombia ****

 


 

Date Received: February 20, 2018

Date Accepted: May 22, 2018

Date of Publication: July 01 of 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22335/rlct.v10i3.630

 

* The article resulting from the doctoral thesis research "Epistemological conception of the role of the media in education" Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Gervasio Rubio-Venezuela

 

**PhD. In Educación. Filiación: Universidad de Los Andes- Venezuela.  Email: luzmerybelandria@gmail.com .  Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9576-389X

 

***PhD. In Educación Filiación: Universidad de Santander. Cúcuta- Colombia  email:  editor_aibi@cucuta.udes.edu.co Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6725-4601

 

**** PhD  in Education, Post PhD  in Imaginary and social representations. Professor-Researcher, Member of the Euler  Research Group, ascribed  to the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander (Cúcuta, Colombia). Affiliation Professor of the Francisco de Paula University Santander.  E-mail: mawency@ufps.edu.co    Orcid:  https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8285-2968

 

Abstract

The media represent, together with education, one of the forces of change of the universal society. The recent years have imposed modalities and technologies that raise their influence, instantaneity and geographic penetration or reach, to turn them into fundamental axis. That media power is conceived, although it is not a current reality for now, as a valuable tool to strengthen the educational process, through the production of news, reports, interviews, spaces, documentaries and programs that reinforce teaching originated in the classroom; that revalue the importance and validity of the training process; and strengthen the values of both nationality and individual personality; and taking into account that ninety percent of Venezuelan households have television sets and eighty four percent of radio receivers. The two areas are detailed in their origin and as processes, to make their importance sit down. The particular media situation is analyzed in the Municipality of Zea, Mérida State, where there are two radio stations and one television station, in addition to primary, secondary and higher schools. Teachers with management positions, media directors and producers are the key informants. It is located within the qualitative paradigm and the ethnographic method. The information was analyzed by means of triangulation and interpretation based on the design of Bahamonde and carried out in two moments, the first with the double entry Alpha Matrix that gave the synthesis of the relevant social phenomenon, expressed in graphic one. The second, with the Beta Matrix generating the theoretical Projection expressed in Graph two. All with the aim of generating the epistemological conception of the role of the media embodied in the conclusions and contributions of the research.

Key Words:  Media, education, current legislation, co-responsibility, mass society, culture and change (Took from Thesaurus, 2018)

Resumen

Los medios de comunicación representan, junto a la educación, una de las fuerzas de cambio de la sociedad universal. Los años recientes han impuesto modalidades y tecnologías que elevan su influencia, instantaneidad y penetración geográfica o alcance, para convertirlos en eje fundamental. Ese poder mediático es concebido, aunque no es realidad vigente por ahora, como  una herramienta valiosa para fortalecer el proceso educativo, mediante  la producción  de noticias, reportajes, entrevistas, espacios, documentales y programas que  refuercen la enseñanza originada en el aula de clase; que revaloricen la importancia y validez del proceso formativo; y fortalezcan los valores, tanto de la nacionalidad como de la personalidad individual; y tomando en cuenta que en el noventa por ciento de los hogares venezolanos hay aparatos de televisión  y  en el ochenta y cuatro por ciento de receptores de  radio. Las dos áreas son detalladas en su origen y como procesos, para dejar sentada su importancia. Se analiza la particular situación mediática  en el Municipio Zea, Estado Mérida, donde existen  dos emisoras radiales y una televisora, además de planteles  de primaria, secundaria y superior. Docentes  con cargos  directivos,  directores de medios  y productores son  los informantes  clave. Se ubica dentro del paradigma cualitativo y el método etnográfico. Se analizó la información, mediante la triangulación e interpretación basadas en el diseño de Bahamonde y realizadas en dos momentos el primero con la   Matriz  Alfa  de doble entrada que  arrojó la síntesis del fenómeno social relevante, expresada en gráfico uno.  El segundo, con la Matriz Beta generando la Proyección teórica expresada  en el Gráfico dos.   Todo con el objetivo de generar la  concepción epistemológica del rol de los medios de comunicación plasmado en las conclusiones y aportes de la investigación.

Palabras Claves: Medios  de comunicación, educación, legislación vigente, corresponsabilidad, sociedad de masas, cultura y cambio (Tomadas de Thesaurus, 2018)

Resumo

A mídia representa, junto com a educação, uma das forças de mudança da sociedade universal. Os últimos anos impuseram modalidades e tecnologias que elevam sua influência, instantaneidade e penetração ou alcance geográfico, para transformá-las em eixo fundamental. Que o poder da mídia é concebida, embora não realmente em vigor para agora, como uma ferramenta valiosa para fortalecer o processo educacional, através da produção de notícias, reportagens, entrevistas, espaços, documentários e programas que fortalecem o ensino se originou na sala de aula; que revalorizam a importância e a validade do processo de treinamento; e fortalecer os valores da nacionalidade e da personalidade individual; e tendo em conta que noventa por cento dos lares venezuelanos têm televisores e oitenta e quatro por cento dos receptores de rádio. As duas áreas são detalhadas em sua origem e como processos, para que sua importância seja sentida. A situação particular da mídia é analisada no Município de Zea, Estado de Mérida, onde há duas estações de rádio e uma estação de televisão, além de escolas primárias, secundárias e superiores. Professores com cargos de gerência, diretores de mídia e produtores são os informantes-chave. Está localizado dentro do paradigma qualitativo e do método etnográfico. A informação foi analisada por triangulação e interpretação com base na concepção de Bahamonde e realizada em duas fases, a primeira Alfa com a síntese de matriz dupla entrada que renderam importante fenómeno social, expressa em um gráfico. A segunda, com a matriz beta gerando a projeção teórica expressa no gráfico dois. Tudo com o objetivo de gerar a concepção epistemológica do papel da mídia incorporada nas conclusões e contribuições da pesquisa.

Palavras-chave: Mídia, educação, legislação vigente, co-responsabilidade, sociedade de massa, cultura e mudança (Extraído do Thesaurus, 2018)

Introduction

Research in education is one of the most exciting branches of teacher training and development, because it penetrates the depth of a problem or situation and, in drawing conclusions, increases the desire to address theorizing about probable solutions or particularities that can affect the improvement of the quality of education and in the better understanding and applicability of the teachings for the betterment of society.

Education, a complex, broad and permanent process, constitutes one of the vertebral axes of the universal society. It is impossible, human life without it. It is not a matter of recent date, but of antiquity. From time immemorial to current modernity, the process has served to perpetuate human life. The first settlers taught their descendants in caves, mountains, forests, waters or outdoors, using direct action as an example or practical explanation. It was about hunting, fishing, defending against beasts, gathering fruits, using fire or preparing food. Guarisma (2007) deals with the matter like this:

The roots of education, the primary formulation of teaching - learning processes, must be sought in the night of civilization when homo sapiens began to contemplate nature as the australopithecus, the pitecantropus and the neandherthal had not. . (p.19)

These roots of education are important because they have served to show that the man of antiquity was developing capacities to express feelings, feelings and emotions that led him to modify their customs, improving their habitat and nutrition, especially by the appearance of agricultural crops, until producing the language or speech, fundamental element to increase their human relations.

Along with language, the appearance of ideas, imaginations and beliefs was
Promoting a worldview that involved the existence of God, the Creator or superior being, with the formation of religions and their subsequent diffusion or teaching, initially transmitted orally from parents to children, then by prophets, pastors or preachers and later through of schools. Guarisma (2007) expresses it this way:

To the extent that man was creating society through communication and made the word an effect understood by all, he understood that human beings were different because of their attributes, characteristics and skills, and that when contemplating knowledge and different skills all obtained greater benefits, goods and advantages than if they had been alone. They obtained greater security, food and resources by joining. They could prolong the lives of their loved ones and overcome diseases thanks to the help, cooperation and experience of others. Then, society emerged as a result of the intelligence of the human being, which was empowered and believed to the extent that it was in contact with third parties. (p 21)

The centuries of evolution put us in the presence of Greece and Rome, before the Christian era, as universal milestones in the education of the Western world, of splendor and transcendence, stories that were still studied today, within the grandiosity of knowledge. The School of Athens, the great teachers Aristotle, Plato, Solon, Dracon and Socrates, and the chairs of mathematics, philosophy, letters, medicine and law, the stage of growth of pre-Christian education, ensuring knowledge bases still in force.

Europe and Asia constituted the great poles of civilization. Its maritime advances, based on nautical schools and cartography, with its shipyards, served to motivate the discovery of America, which expanded Christianity. In a few centuries the world became multipolar and then in years of the previous century, America came to have the first seat as a continent, especially by the Anglo-Saxon influence in the north, where the United States showed and developed its imperialist aspiration, within a geopolitical that has multiplied the educational boom and has created elements not so much novel, but rather sophisticated to globalize education, beyond the concepts of massification or equality, making the universe a global village where you can study at a distance and with simultaneity between one and another continent.

Within that sophistication, the scientific - technological elements developed by the great powers (United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, Japan and Germany) play a preponderant role and together with them have achieved positive evolution in the media. Social. Guarisma (2008) has studied the subject and analyses it in this way:

The changes that have been generated in the world in the last twenty years, within which the universal expansion of cyberspace has a great weight, have brought as a consequence remarkable changes in human geography on the planet. Changes that result in a historical reinterpretation of Geopolitics and in the questioning of many of its assumptions, which were determined in a deterministic way by the classical discourse of political science. (p.166)

This research work links education with the media, in the search for the communicational role (epistemological conception) in order to reinforce educational education, thanks to the media power, in both senses. By reinforcing the issues or subjects taught through educational revalidation as a transformative process. In the first available aspect of specially elaborated materials and in agreement with the current programs or curriculum, and in the second making the system and its authors objects of news, reports or programs. The school is news.

New concepts and definitions will generate significant theories to advance in a full imbrication that increases and facilitates the possession, use and mastery of knowledge in Venezuelan society. The approach of the subject takes the media, within the constitutional and legal recognition they have, and places them in non-formal or open education, understood as that which does not keep the rigidity of the classroom or classroom, the teacher as a direct spokesperson and the face-to-face nature, but uses other tools especially facilitators to overcome distances, such as communication vehicles, both traditional (press, radio and television, as well as modern ones (Internet, intelligent telephony, digital libraries and libraries, satellite communications , free networks and wireless devices).

The media are convoked constitutionally to be co-operators, servants and promoters of education, in use and application of the provision contained in Article 102, Title III on Human Rights, Guarantees and Duties, of the Venezuelan Magna Carta, which reads:

Education is a human right and a fundamental social duty, it is democratic, free and compulsory. The State will assume it as an irrevocable function of maximum interest in all its levels and modalities, and as an instrument of scientific, humanistic and technological knowledge at the service of society ... (p.79)

To conceive of education as a human right is to determine that all beings must be the object and subject of the educational process, in an egalitarian and universal way, with the additions of the democratic and free character, in addition to the obligatory nature. That is to say that no one can obviate their training or refuse to receive it. Having the status of a social duty constitutes a guarantee that society, where the family is included, is equally responsible, together with the State of the educational system. Of course, when we talk about the State, we understand that society is one of its parts, as is the family nucleus. The important thing is to know that the constitutional rank of education makes it a totalizing process to which we are all subject and obliged, including the means of social communication.

Precisely, constitutional article 103 establishes that every person has the right to an integral, quality, permanent education, in equal conditions and opportunities, with no limitations other than those derived from their aptitudes, vocation and aspirations ... (p.80) Society , together with the State - Government and the family, are the three main supports of the educational process. The social group is jointly responsible, the State - Government is in charge of the direction and management of the integral formation and the family carries out a good part of the direct formation, in the first age, especially in values, and is reinforcement of the task that the school meets.

The media are part of society and reflect its dynamism and reality, which makes them part of the formation of the citizen, having a weight or influence of capital importance, so that their social role can not be separated and within them, there must be a conception of the educational fact to support, promote and reinforce education. Precisely, the republican Constitution (Article 108) argues that

Public and private social media should contribute to citizen education. The State will guarantee public services of radio, television and library and computer networks in order to allow universal access to information. (p.73)

Every society that seeks new paths, change, transformation or overcoming a crisis requires a national plan in the pursuit of the great objectives, agreed and widely known, for which media support is essential, in dissemination. Education becomes the instrument of the formation of each citizen to make him part of that change. However, only education does not end up executing or verifying the process, so media participation is needed so that the contents taught, are reinforced in daily life, in the simple and everyday task. That does not happen in Venezuela, despite the constitutional and legal support, remaining as a felt or desired aspiration, and less in the territorial area where we will deploy this study.

For the purpose of greater understanding, I now deal with the concept of communication, its idiomatic meaning, and then specify the technical fact or action to communicate, leaving well-established the powerful communicative effect produced by the media.

Corominas (1973) determines etymologically that "the word communication is formed with Latin roots, with four lexical components: Con (entirely, globally), munus (charge, duty, occupation), ico (relative to) and ción (action or effect) " (p.32) this explanation allows to expand the knowledge and the transcendence of the communicative process, adapting it to the approach that will be given to this investigation. There is communication when it is fully done, globally, communicated by virtue of an occupation, function, responsibility or charge, the message is referred to a concrete something and the communicative action seeks an effect.

The communication, base, support and sense of the communicational media, is, then, multidirectional. Due to their dynamics, roles are transferred, that is, in some cases the receiver becomes an issuer and vice versa. To this is added that the channel of transmission of the same is very diverse, and increasing in amplitude of the socio - human spectrum and in territorial coverage, being able to sustain that it does not have borders or spatial limitations.

The social manifestations demonstrate a continuous interaction, expressed through the exchange of ideas, criteria and concepts. Under this scenario, communication is one of the elements of fundamental importance in this interaction, because it guides the exchange at the verbal, written, visual level, among others. Nobody escapes this interaction because it is a natural circumstance, its own and irreplaceable for the human being.

Communication has been, from the beginning of humanity, and will be in the future, a process of deep social significance, because men and women require this instrument to interact with their peers, to know the living environment with its many characteristics and understand their own presence, their role, in society. It is an action based on personal interactions that allow us to perceive the messages to facilitate harmonious coexistence. Hence, communication, from the social point of view, is essential, consubstantial. From the theoretical-technical sphere is given by the fact that a certain message produced by an emitter or medium reaches a distant receiver, in space and time, by means of an agreed code (phoneme, graphic, image).

Therefore, it implies the transmission of a specific information or content, that is, the emission of an understandable element. This process has been developing fully, with instantaneity and immediacy, thanks to advances in science and technology. Laboratories and research centers now occupy more time and their entrepreneurs invest more money to increase levels of instantaneity, understanding and effectiveness. In the world, communications are below the energy sector, in second place, in terms of economic investments of new developments.

The Venezuelan social media, whose origin has been completed for two centuries, lack an appropriate conceptualization of the educational fact, considered in its two aspects, both as an object of news and social treatment or having the medium itself as an option or instrument for educate. Hence, education is not usually news, that is, relevant fact, and the communication channels or media point their objectives, productions, purchases and goals in other directions, especially of political, commercial or commercial convenience, taking advantage of the fact that listening to radio and watching television is the main cultural activity within the six million homes that number thirty million inhabitants. There are no communicational actions in order to increase the prestige of the educator or of education, but there is no direct teaching in the thousands of existing channels, despite the fact that the educational process is the great instrument of human change and, therefore, that Desired social improvement comes to be of the interest of the entrepreneurs themselves or owners of the media. These actions are the news services, interviews, reports, dialogues, short programs and documentaries, in which they could highlight the advances, advances, in the formation of the students, the academic achievements, the closing of the course and the works elaborated by students. . That is to say that education, being of such importance and social impact, constitutes news or object of permanent journalistic treatment. Two Venezuelan examples allow us to understand the other side, that of direct teaching through radio. Institutions linked to the Catholic Church, Radio Occidente de Tovar (1961) and the Fe y Alegría Radio Institute of Caracas (1975), promote courses with accreditation in primary education and programs with educational materials to access any public.

In the television field experiences are greater, although recent, with channels that have assumed education and culture as their identity. Highlights Values TV (VALE) of the Archbishopric of Caracas, Children Singers of Zulia, Teleboconó of Trujillo, ULA TV of Merida, Simón TV of the Simón Bolívar University and the television station of the University of Carabobo. Everything has been through institutional efforts, without there being an own or specific legislation that defines and guides educational and cultural television.

There are few experiences, if we think that in ten years we celebrate the centenary of Venezuelan radio broadcasting and we have already reached the sixty-fourth anniversary of the transmission of images on television.

The approach of this doctoral work is supported in the concern of the authors that the media have a very high penetration to be present television in ninety percent of the six million Venezuelan homes, while in 84.6% have radio receivers; and they are also constitutionally and legally called to contribute to the educational process, but they do not. And on the contrary, in many cases they foment anti-values of society, especially false beliefs, easy profit and human uprooting, instead of adding to the reinforcement of educational content and encouraging positive trends such as visits to libraries, bookstores, museums, galleries, theatres or attendance to gatherings, conversations or community meetings.

However, this desired contribution is proposed as an aspiration of the highest value, in the sense of promoting spaces or programs that reinforce the teaching of the school to give the student new views of what has been received as a lesson, that is to say that the medium extends the contents of what is taught in the classroom in an orchestrated manner, so that learning is clearly established, better valued, clearly understood and exploited more, especially by the large number of hours dedicated by citizens, all ages, to the use of these means, which has become the most important cultural activity of Venezuelans within the home.

If the communication medium is an ally of the education system, and that is the product or aspiration of this thesis, we will have better students, better professionals and people with greater social and human identity, making education really the engine, understood and consented, of the transformation of the human being.

What happens in the current national? The media have been conceived to facilitate entertainment and are directed towards a commercial or business purpose, made possible by the concessions or operating permits regime, in full oblivion of social obligations. One of them is related to support for education. The programs, therefore, seek to captivate audiences through resources imposed by fashion, by the simple or customary in each place, by musical tastes and by subliminal elements, which generates followers that are added (known by means of rating investigations) to allow for greater income by concept of advertising guidelines, which is the end of the medium, by its commercial trend.

This occurs because the social collective is not understood and assumed responsibility, as a broad and heterogeneous group, within the educational process that has great objectives such as the preservation of society itself, the promotion of its creative dynamism, well-being, equal integration, solidarity and peace.

Going back to the communication theory, it is important to discuss the interaction here. It is a technical process that involves listening and being heard. This refers to two-way communication, between two actors, which is revealed daily, in the family, work, school or on the street. Thus arises the development of values ​​that increase the communicational importance of society, where it coexists. In order to facilitate communication between human beings, society has been provided with numerous means and routes, now highly sophisticated. The mass media are among them. Lazarfeld and Merton (1974) deal with the social interest generated by these instruments:

Many are alarmed by the ubiquity and potential power of the mass media. The most widespread impression is that the mass media represent a powerful instrument, both for good and for evil, and that, if adequate controls are lacking, the last hypothesis will be, as a consequence, the most probable one (p.234).

From this perspective, the media are constructs that have contributed to the development of the communication event. Now there is greater quality, scope and technological depth to approach, relate, unite, shorten distances, in short, communicate optimally. This, of course, affects a higher quality of life, within which social integration plays an important role, by allowing citizens, peoples and countries to be added, in processes that facilitate development and promote peace. This integration, from the governmental spheres, is based on legal agreements, treaties or agreements, but it is the communicational constructs that allow the achievement of the goals. Nothing will be achieved if, for example, the agreements made are theories or desires, and there are no peoples or communities that admit, assume, deploy and develop them.

Education is one of the social processes that mostly requires the media. This process according to Corominas, has an intention, an address, to cause an effect or reaction. In technical language this amounts to a response. In this way, there is a double perspective: communicate and teach. It is shared and disseminated through the first action, while with the second, an orientation is given, a knowledge is shared or disseminated and a path, a path or option to be followed is indicated. Edel (2004) contributes his criterion, for the purposes of his understanding:

The concept of education is broader than that of teaching and learning, and it has fundamentally a spiritual and moral sense, its object being the integral formation of the individual. When this preparation is translated into a high level of intellectual, moral and spiritual training, it is an authentic education that will achieve greater perfection as the subject dominates, self-controls and self-directs its potentialities: desires, tendencies, judgments, reasoning and will. (p.1)

Communication is what gives meaning and enables teaching, because through it information is shared, knowledge is imparted and facts proven in a historical, social and statistical manner are disseminated. All of the above means that the communication process is fulfilled, putting in common the message that is conformed by previously studied knowledge. The teaching is communicated, the duly elaborated knowledge, to a group or globality of learners; the teacher acts as a communicator in the performance of a function; what is transmitted is something very specific (knowledge of a certain subject such as geography, history, biology, etc.), and it seeks to directly affect the recipient, student, student or educator.

This incidence is given by the assimilation of knowledge, its internalization, analysis and understanding, for later use in the school itself, for evaluative purposes or in the environment where it lives. Communication and education are associable, because this joint action fully assumes the etymological meaning of the two words. Both are justified one another and in the case of education would not exist if it is not associated or supported by communication. Being united, in the midst of great techno-scientific advances, they complement each other in search of the great objectives of society. Onelis (2011) contributes its criteria:

The role of communication is to improve teaching-learning, allowing satisfactory results in terms of knowledge that the participant obtains during the entire teaching process taught by the teacher. (Onelis, 2011, p.17)

This implies a good quality of the communicative process, for the purposes of the full understanding on the part of the student and the assimilation of the product taught, for school and social use. This premise of quality is related to the operative instruments of communication (program or curriculum, appropriate environment, equipment, devices and instruments), and also to the training of the teacher or communicator, both in the use of technological support and with their ability of planning, in the use of pedagogical strategies, of analysis and explanation, prior to which it will be necessary to have achieved the motivation, enthusiasm and understanding of the participants.

Communication, thanks to the advanced systematic development of its components, seeks to share, impart and disseminate, putting a whole society in common, in knowledge of something. Education justifies, legitimates and gives merit to the communication purpose. In the case of the mass media it is appropriate to revalidate their role in the light of what is, in essence, or should be, the use of the word communicate, assuming that it is an action of deep social and cultural repercussion that does not it can be interpreted simply as a way of fun, hobby, entertainment or, worse, a merchant business. Ugas (2003) treats the subject with sufficiency:

In the information society, knowledge transcends broad layers of the population; it no longer has the school as the only means of propagation. Teachers lose the predominance of possession and distribution of knowledge. Everyday life occurs for all through channels dissimilar to traditional institutions. In a telematized society, citizens access, use and manage communication media as a support for the production, circulation and consumption of knowledge (Cañizales, 2010, p.59).

That cultural influence is inevitable that occurs, what happens for good and bad of society itself, without it can stop it fully, due to the strength that has reached what has become the universal cultural industry. Industry that has its strength in the statistical fact that in the world there are more television receivers (dry televisions) than households or homes, that in the middle and upper classes more than one computer per family is added and that production film is becoming stronger every day. A film can condense dozens of books, a television report can summarize a semester of pre-grade classes, in any subject and a half-hour news program can avoid reading the newspapers of a city, for many people.

Assertiveness in communication is one of the values ​​necessary for the communication process to be affirmative, to demonstrate the positive in the collective consciousness, such as raising the richness of the general vocabulary, promoting coexistence, integration and human cooperation, and increase understanding and analysis of the facts. There must be impartiality. Respect for laws, customs, traditions, public order, people and institutions is another value. In addition, this communication must be assisted by analysis, study and preparation of content, at the same time that objectives, goals and scopes must be attributed to it.

 Everything, within the understanding of ethics as rector of the communication exercise. She, ethics, becomes the reason and self-normative sense of the communicative task, because it entails a way of acting, a clear vision and a purpose aimed at provoking positive, healthy and valuable reactions to improve the quality of life of society as a globality, as a human conglomerate required of well-being and not of mere manipulations, subliminal provocations or mercantile tendencies. It is of such importance the ethical behaviour that in the professional guilds there are written codes, of obligatory fulfilment, in order to preserve the purity, integrity and quality of the professional practice

This being the object, vision and mission of teaching, means that the media, in response to recommendations of the United Nations Organization (UN, 2003) and specialized events, should contribute to the fulfilment of the educational role and the achievement of the sustainability of each specific national society, because such an influential sector, such as the communicational one, can not be alien to the great human goals conceived in favour of a better social development and the integral formation of the human being.

Previously, the General Assembly on December 20, 2002 agreed to decree the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014) and entrusted the elaboration of the plan to the specialized agency for Education, Science and Culture UNESCO as a strategy to achieve sustainable development, considering the possible achievement of a more viable society through the education system, for which he urged countries to share practices, policies and programs, incorporating fundamental issues such as climate change, reduction of disaster risks, biodiversity, poverty reduction and sustainable consumption. (UN, Resolution 57-254)

These two circumstances imply a change of thought and beliefs on the part of those who are in the communication sector and of those who are the rectors of the educational system, in search of a rethinking of each particular national strategy. In the media, the reelaboration of messages with a greater appreciation of social and environmental issues is imposed, without pretending that the educational system creates its own channels or means, just to educate. The educational leaders must open a wide discussion to find an appropriate expansion of the old school to teach, to achieve an adaptation to the new times, in which both the environment and the media influence the students, at all levels and in all modalities. With this approach, Luna (2001) agrees that:

The media in a democratic society is assumed to fulfil the following functions: a) produce information, culture, education and entertainment that contributes to the formation of a civic culture; b) supervise and monitor the management and organization of public power; c) serve the public interest of citizens; d) disseminate this information and make it attractive to the audience. (p.31)

Faced with this potential of the media, as vehicles and instruments, highlights the fact that active teachers have not assumed them as complementary educational tools, and at the same time these media do not have education as an allied company that they must support in terms of the diffusion of contents, while they do not see teaching as a news source or as a remarkable profession on a daily basis in their informative productions. The second serves to understand more clearly the separation of one and another sector. It should be added that education as a great promoter of change in society, is the only one that can generate a different man, capable of reaching new stages of life with quality and preservation of the human species. That is to say, it is about the great and good news, which interests everyone, even when there are no children or relatives in school, because education is permanent and social changes also. Education and changes never end.

From the educational side, a superficial and fragmented treatment of reality can be seen in the communication instruments, to which are added the interests of power to those who serve, ideological positions, the rush of time and the great diversity of options, to conclude in which education must also serve to generate critical, participatory and protagonist users, and not mere readers, listeners or manipulable viewers. Obviously, it is a vision that starts from the general distrust towards the environment.

Foucault (2000) offers a historical-critical analysis of power relations, observes procedures and techniques to influence the behaviour of individuals or groups seeking to form or modify their way of acting, and concludes that power relations characterize the Thus, men are governors for each other, which occurs through material operators, forms of submission, connections and local systems and devices of knowledge. His exposition is interesting, from considering the media as operators of power interests:

... It may well be that the great machineries of power are accompanied by ideological productions. Without doubt there was, for example, an ideology of education, an ideology of monarchical power, an ideology of parliamentary democracy, and so on. But at the base, at the end point of power networks, I do not believe that what is formed are ideologies. It is much less and, it seems to me, much more. They are effective instruments of training and accumulation of knowledge, methods of observation, registration techniques, research and search procedures, verification devices. That is to say, when power is exercised in its fine mechanisms, it can not do so without the formation, organization and putting into circulation of knowledge or, better, knowledge apparatuses that are not accompaniments or ideological buildings. (p 41)

Addressing this problem implies knowing the understanding, understanding and expectations of educational actors regarding the media role, interpreting the epistemological conception of the educational context in the media and reviewing teacher training, since for the use of the media as an instrument we have that having a training, in which a personality is modelled, of the educator, characterized the innovative desire, the dynamism, the creativity, the study and the production of printed and audio-visual contents. Something very different from the mere use of the classroom to speak and be heard, in the midst of a disciplined audience. Santos (2012) focuses on the subject of teacher training by saying:

It is necessary to continue learning. Because knowledge multiplies incessantly. We have to continue learning because the needs of the students are changing and because the goals of the school have to adapt to new demands "(p.22).

The role of the media as socially influential and determining instruments in the new cultural modes is disregarded. This issue is demonstrated daily because its materials, its productions and, in other words, its messages are perceived, assimilated and reworked by users to be the subject of conversations, dialogues and meetings, with greater assiduity than the school's own teachings.

The utility of the communicational medium is accepted as a universal reality. There are no doubts or contradictions. However, it is good to clarify that talking about the mass media as a support to the school system does not mean leaving aside the use of the device or device (TV, transistor, projector or diffuser) as a facilitator. It is a useful object. The subject dealt with refers to the mass media. The general culture of citizens has a greater component of contributions given by communication channels than school products, because of the ease of having them at home, at convenient times and free of charge, without having to have notes, notes, records or evaluations. Moreover, in the case of television there is an especially useful resource: the repetition of high-audience programs. The well-achieved images and a good expression of the animator teach more, in the comfort of the home, than classroom or classroom classes.

This highlights the relevance and usefulness of a strategic partnership, between the education system and the social media, in order to make the constitutional postulates inherent to the consideration of education as a human right and social duty a reality. A very useful alliance to re-launch, revitalize and rethink education, make it more enjoyable and with greater possibility of forming better human beings, within the concepts of modernity that is present and has been inevitably imposed by the phenomenon of globalization. Again it is useful to quote Ugas (2005):

The school has to be linked to the environment, building bridges between the academic culture and the culture that is being created, among which stand out: tolerance, personal effort, coherence, solidarity and cooperation, the critical and creative spirit. But how to cause the student to participate actively and critically? For this it is necessary to turn the classroom into a space for action and thought, generate methodological changes and overcome pedagogical obstacles. (p.137)

This author places the subject in a perspective of wide solution, because it invites us to think about the association of the already known school with the socio - cultural environment that surrounds it, with the new associative forms and with the ways of culture, where values ​​such as fundamentals that have been made obligations, such as tolerance, solidarity and cooperation, created by mass dissemination and social dynamism, which facilitates the use as school tools, but also leads us to think of the classroom as a new space of encounter and development, beyond the current pedagogical strategies. On this last, Ugas provides a new contribution:

The organizational culture that contains the classroom has to be analysed from the society that takes place in it. Today society requires the school to change, since schooling has led to the degree, not to training. We must overcome the reproductive influences of this school dynamic (p.141).

The present reality in the Zea Municipality, of absence of the radio and television communication resource to strengthen teaching and learning at all educational levels, of transcendent activities within the schools without media coverage, of teachers not valued by these means and without These educators appreciate the medium as useful for educating, it allows to suppose that there are direct consequences in the diminution of the influence of the school as the centre of the local society and of the educator as natural leader given its credibility, disappearing the former social leadership of the teacher. As is natural in the country, within the municipality increases the time spent by schoolchildren in the media, especially television, in the deterioration of the exercise at home of school work, readings to expand knowledge, use and review of the dictionary, manual creations and sports practice.

The media has a program that seeks to get tuned and for this they use a conventional programming, not specifically local or cultural in educational terms, because the primacy and its object, instead of having a community or social vision, is marked by the orientation commercial, alien, in any case, to the constitutional regulations and not subject to guidelines and specific rules that could force to deploy a programming or grid, as they say, capable of increasing the dissemination of knowledge, in parallel and in support of the formal education.

For these reasons, there is a need to answer these questions: What is the educational conceptualization handled by the media? What educational actions are carried out by the media in the municipality? What expectations do the actors have? Educational with respect to the media? How is the epistemological conception of the educational context of the media in the municipality of Zea interpreted?

It is important that educational institutions prioritize within their organizational structure the creation of teaching programs through the media, oriented to information that dynamizes the internal and external processes that vivify the entity and project it towards its area of influence, considering that these agile vehicles can promote information, participation, integration and coexistence within the framework of organizational culture. Here recognition of the individual and group capacities of both teachers and students becomes a basis for developing specific projects of cultural reinforcement, as well as the national experiences of educational television in the sixties and the recent insertion of the cultural model of Valores Televisión in Caracas.

An attitudinal change, as a result of the research development, will bring numerous social benefits to the community and at the same time will serve as a model for other territorial jurisdictions in Venezuela, where the use of communication media will be valued and increased in order to increase the social impact of education. From the professional point of view, the deepening of the topic is of social and educational interest and is called to be assumed with full responsibility and commitment, because it will shed light on the roles of teachers and communicators (or media entrepreneurs) and open ways of understanding for a fruitful relationship that will seek better and more worked influence in the socio-educational fields.

Regarding the professional level, it is important to recognize that this research will open spaces for academic growth, challenges, commitments that will allow for the experience of important experiences to value the media in their positive and desirable influence on academic education. In reiteration, the media (or services) represent a territory without borders and limitations in the order of links, irradiations or cultural influences, either as a teaching resource or as an autonomous element that expands knowledge. The study of its role, both in its old and modern versions, in favour of the reinforcement of the elements (plans or programs) of formal, schooled education, is of singular importance. Ríos (2004) argues:

We live in a time of great and accelerated processes of change in which information and knowledge are the factor for the advancement of people and societies. The era that lies ahead is the revolution of knowledge, in this formal education is only the starting point of a process of lifelong learning before new realities and technological innovations. (p.89)

What is exposed by Ríos, serves to reaffirm that the media allow the individual to interrelate day by day with their daily life, in a better way, knowing new facts and information, when speaking with their teachers, friends, family and society: becoming this in an aspect of the general culture that contributes to the student to understand the environment in which it develops and in this way build their knowledge and develop skills in an active, participatory, autonomous and ingenious way.

Methodology

The study is part of the field of social sciences, assuming as such those that study the human being living with their peers, and is supported in the qualitative method to obtain the greatest validity, guarantee, reliability and applicability. In this regard, Duverger (1962) states:

There is no doubt that human societies are not completely subject to scientific analysis. There is in all likelihood a mystery of man that can never be fully penetrated, and on which poets project more light than technicians. (p.14)

The appointment of the French social scientist looks relevant to revalidate the chosen path against the quantitative option. Furthermore, Duverger encourages our view that many of the human mysteries are nothing but shadows produced by our own ignorance. And to revalidate the social sciences the author states:

The twentieth century is not only the century of the atom: it is also the century of the social sciences. The new methods of propaganda and framing of men can already change the structure of the world as deeply as the use of nuclear energy (p.15)

It refers to the possibility that a communication strategy may have more impact on social dynamism, motivational change or collective improvement, on overcoming problems, than an invention or innovation of a scientific nature, and it says it, precisely, because in the

social sciences is that the human being stops being a number or number, or a thing, to reach via the educational way a seat of autonomous thinking, protected from manipulation. Duverger is critical of Nicolás de Maquiavelo, who maintained that "Governing is making people believe". Someday this formula will be false, he said.

Kind of investigation

The qualitative paradigm is used as an activity that obtains data in the field of research directly, based on interviews, surveys and opinion analysis, sharing the scenario (broadcaster or television, school, school, high school) to know the reality directly.

It seeks to obtain the truth, as a conclusion that derives in actions or applications. This truth will always be relative and partial, built on a lot by the researcher, through its decisions of methodology, techniques and analysis.

Rojas (2012), defines the qualitative modality

Qualitative research is a systematic, interpretative, constructivist and naturalistic activity that includes various epistemological and theoretical postures aimed at understanding the reality studied and / or its transformation and development of an organized body of knowledge. (p.01)

Therefore, in the social sciences, qualitative research has a long history and becomes increasingly relevant when the purpose of the study is to understand in depth individual and collective actions or institutional practices, organizational functioning, social movements or interactive relationships. It is based on the interpretative, evading the statistical or numerical and using techniques and instruments to obtain analysis and validity, all according to the theories that support it.

The qualitative methodology leads to the study of reality from a critical and technical analysis of contents to demonstrate the truth and certainty of the social influence of the media, in the way that citizens are perceived, assimilated and reworked by users in their conversations.

On the other hand, Bautista (2011) exposes it in this way:

The qualitative approach seeks information about behaviour through the observation of events and activities. Its emphasis is on obtaining open textual data, in the words and phrases of the local population, particularly to obtain information on the context of behaviour and the systems that influence behaviour. (P. 16)

It is about more detailed information on human activity than the use of quantitative investigative instruments can throw, in which only the numbers or registers foreseen in the inquiry are admitted. They do not take into account the flexibility, willingness to change, criteria, adaptability, acceptance and tolerance of society.

When this study is about media that affect the personal and social construction of knowledge, through multiple channels that reach individuals who receive them beyond their own conscience, and about the educational fact, as acquisition and transformation of knowledge, it is the qualitative method that can lead us to the answers, considerations and conclusions about human complexity to generate new knowledge.

Sandín (2003) cites Strauss and Corbin to give a qualitative research definition:

We understand any type of research that produces results that have not been reached by statistical procedures or any other type of quantification. It can refer to research about the lives of people, stories, behaviours, and also to organizational functioning, social movements or relationships and interactions. Some of the data can be quantified, but the analysis itself is qualitative (Langa, 2012, p.121).

Method Selection

The method represents the way or way to reach the goal or destination, which corresponds to the meaning of the word in its Greek origin and in the present study is the way in which the educational and communicational reality is approached, in the imbrication, education and media, as fundamental axes of society.

The ethnographic method has been selected because it allows to address a specific cultural community such as the communicational - educational one in a municipal context and circumscribed to a precise number of media and schools. There is identity in the group, for having objectives and purposes that are common to them, they share values, beliefs, motivations, behaviours and modes of social interaction. Sandín (2003) argues that:

Ethnography is considered a research modality of social sciences that arises from cultural anthropology and qualitative sociology and is part of the qualitative methodology family. There is talk of ethnographic research or simply of ethnography to allude both to the research process by which one learns the way of life of some group and the product of that research. (p. 154)

In this sense it is good to refer to the nature or features of ethnography. Sandín cites Latorre (1996) to abound in the details it contains:

Holistic character for addressing the totality and complexity; naturalistic condition by adjusting to the natural habitat to listen and observe; inductive way that uses the evidences to obtain conceptions and theories; the phenomenological character allows direct study of social agents; Contextualization allows the observations to be placed within broad perspectives; value judgments are not issued and the research itself makes the researcher part of the world he studies. (p 155)

Rojas (2012) provides another explanation:

The ultimate goal of ethnographic research is to arrive at an understanding of the situation on the basis of the meanings that the actors give to it and the corresponding interpretation of it.

Geographical and Social Context

The geographic delimitation corresponds to the context conformed by the educative and communicational system, public and private, in the Zea Municipality, where national and state educational institutions, of initial, primary, secondary and university, a television station and two radio stations, all of them already exist. prolonged implantation Specifically, the following educational facilities will be included: "Félix Román Duque" Basic School in Primary Education; Rita Mora de Barrios School in Basic and Diversified Education; Pedagogical Experimental University of Zea; Radio C 107.3 FM, Radio Retorno 106.1 FM and Zea Televisión Comunitaria.

This Municipality is the most recent creation in the State of Mérida (1991). It has as eponymous the pro-independence leader from New Granada Francisco Antonio Zea Díaz (1766 - 1822), born in Medellín and President of the Constituent Congress of Angostura. It is located in north-western Merida, at the confluence with the Táchira and Zulia states. Its capital, of the same name, is near Tovar (12 kilometres). It has fourteen thousand inhabitants (2007). It produces food, agriculture and farming, which supply the local market and allow export. Its origin is colonial, from a population base formed by indigenous people called Murmuquenas who have left traces of their culture in petroglyphs.

It is a centre of Christian devotion. The Ecclesiastical Parish is dedicated to Our Lady of Las Mercedes, founded one hundred and fifty years ago. Celebrate your party on the twenty-fourth of September. In one of the hills of its municipal capital, there is a sanctuary that is subject to thousands of visits throughout the year and that gathers the largest number on January 6. It's about El Niño Jesús de La Cuchilla.

It has an interesting historiography of its educational past, forged by the residents themselves to form a company to create a school, which more than a hundred years ago was an important regional reference for its quality and innovation. The school had printing, accounting practices in commercial houses, teaching in forests or on the banks of streams, internship system, languages and religion.

It is worth noting that the present study was framed within the ethnographic research method, corresponding to the field of social sciences, area of quality of education and topic: media and education.

Research technique and instruments

The instruments or tools of an investigation represent the fundamental support to deploy the concrete work, the project itself, so they must submit to a serious and effective application to obtain the best conclusions, those that faithfully represent the essence of the idea, thought, vision, belief or experience of the people who are taken as participants or intervenors.

The first technique to consider is the Participant Observation, a technique that allows to subsume the author in the scenario or community that is object of consideration, allowing a total approximation or proximity, in search of accurate or true results, to then be submitted for review, analysis, comparison, crossing, categorization and validation, according to the criteria of the Social Sciences.

Bautista (2011) argues that

The main characteristic of the participant observation is its flexibility in the strategy, which allows to deepen in the knowledge of the problem that is investigated, with reference to the life of the people and to complement appointment to Pio J. Navarro, author of a study on societies, peoples and cultures, who points out that "the fundamental technique of data collection in ethnographic studies consists substantially in participant observation. This means that the researcher collects the data living with the members of the society studied and participating in their chores, activities and celebrations. (P. 164)

This observation is not exempt from questions and queries to the informants of the selected institutions, for which a wide interview has been prepared, to complement and more accurately, whose questions we will indicate later. The two techniques are highly reliable and conform to the chosen method.

The interview is assumed to penetrate the internal details of the institutions or stations, in order to identify difficulties or problems that affect the establishment of profitable relationships between the media and the education sector. The interview is the interpersonal communication established between the researcher and the subject of study in order to obtain verbal answers to the questions raised about the proposed problem. It is considered that this method is vigorous, allowing to obtain information.

Through it the researcher can explain the purpose of the study and clearly specify the information you need; if there is an erroneous interpretation of the questions, it can be clarified, ensuring a better response.

Selection of key informants

The success in the selection of key informants, within the chosen institutions, is a way to ensure the attainment of accurate, valid and reliable information. For this selection has been taken into account the position within the leadership cadre, post-graduate training, leadership and knowledge, including career, of each of them, something that is natural, necessary and easy to understand.

The informants are people with institutional identity, social concern, roots in each communicational or educational centre and professional suitability to meet the requirements of the study and facilitate the approach required by participant observation. In the case of teachers, they have post-graduate studies, they have participated in thematic education events, such as the municipal and state pedagogical congresses, and they value the effort that the study in development means. On the communicational side, professionalism stands out, inclination to read, training in the production of materials, a sense of social responsibility thanks to the knowledge of the law and the vocation of community service.

The informants and institutions are the following:

National Basic School Félix Román Duque. A director. (1)

Catholic School Rita Mora de Barrios. A director (1)

UPEL Zea A coordinator. (1)

Radio Return 106.1 FM. A director. (1)

Radio C 107.3 FM. A director. (1)

Zea Community Television. A director. (1)

Validation of Information

In the social sciences it is vital that a study reaches a high level of validity, which is equivalent to sustaining its success, its projection over time and its usefulness. This depends on the fact that the entire research process, the analysis and interpretation, and its presentation reflect a concrete reality that corresponds exactly to what is the specific community or social sector where it was worked and not another, because, otherwise, dissimilar, inaccurate or contradictory of the conclusive part will make it invalid and, consequently, the investigative effort will have been lost.

Validation of Information

In the social sciences it is vital that a study reaches a high level of validity, which is equivalent to sustaining its success, its projection over time and its usefulness. This depends on the fact that the entire research process, the analysis and interpretation, and its presentation reflect a concrete reality that corresponds exactly to what is the specific community or social sector where it was worked and not another, because, otherwise, dissimilar, inaccurate or contradictory of the conclusive part will make it invalid and, consequently, the investigative effort will have been lost.

This reliability and validity has a lot to do with the appropriate choice of key informants and the harmonious development of the in-depth interview.

Martínez (2006) reiterates the importance of validation arguing that:

Validity is the major force of qualitative research. In fact, the way of collecting data, of capturing each event from its different points of view, of living the studied reality and of analysing and interpreting it immersed in its own dynamics, helps to overcome subjectivity and gives these researchers a rigor and a security in their conclusions that very few methods can offer. (p.200)

Good part of the validity has to do with an inventoried analysis of the elements derived from the observation and the interview, that is to say of the results, appreciations, gestures, attitudes and testimonies, for which it is of special value to carry out a Theoretical Systematization which consists of the processing or analysis of the data, by defining typologies, categories (if possible sub categories), the realization of a triangulation, theorization or interpretation. In all this, the relevance and relevance of the information has been previously considered.

The elaboration of typologies to group the investigation or its results in similar criteria or coincidences that facilitate the understanding, to which the categories (or subcategories) that give a better handling of the information are added. In this regard it is useful to mention Palella and Martins (2010):

Once the values taken by the categories and variables of the study (data) have been collected, the analysis is carried out, which allows us to make assumptions and interpretations about the nature and significance of them in response to the different types of information (p.174)

González and Cano (2010) point out: "Interpret the discourse, observed situations, actions and even relevant gestures of the actors and assign a code (term) or exhibitions that briefly present a clear idea of the subject, thus generating the creation of paragraphs called categories "(p.91). This singular aspect is expressed graphically, through pictures.

The triangulation, crossing or contrast, from three different positions or criteria of authors or advisors. That is, comparison in the search for matches, dissidences or news. González and Cano again serve as reference: "It is to give the data an interpretation from different perspectives, or visions contrasting them to find through interpretation the points of confluence in the information provided by the actors" (p.91). And he adds: "The triangulation can be presented in the form of tables or graphic scheme, posing in them the corroboration of the information, as deemed appropriate by the researcher in addition to presenting a sequential relationship with the order of the interview" (p.91).

The interpretation of information or theorization is a basic criterion in support of the final report and its conclusions. González and Cano (cited work) appreciate it like this:

    "... Integrate the results of ongoing research into a coherent and logical whole, improving it with the contributions of the authors outlined in the referential theoretical framework" (p.92). In the technique of information analysis, theorization is the final aspect of the treatment applied to the data obtained. This process is the integration of the analysis with your new ideas or theories. Martínez (2006) explains:

The theorization process uses all available means at its disposal, to achieve the final synthesis of a study or investigation. More specifically, this process tries to integrate the results of the research carried out into a coherent and logical whole, improving them with the contributions of the authors outlined in the theoretical framework, after the triangulation work. (p.189)

In this validation plays an important role the rigor of the researcher, in applying their studies and experiences, learned during the academic training, in a coherent way.

Content Analysis

The content analysis leads to the necessary investigation about the nature of the discourse, that is to say the contributions received by the informants, for which we work searching for detail and depth through the use of instruments that allow us to summarize data.

Pérez Serrano (1984) argues:

In recent years this technique has abandoned the limits of the media and is used in increasingly varied frameworks, from the content of personal productions as an auxiliary technique to the analysis of obtained data, through surveys, interviews, records of observation, etc. (p 133)

The different visions and the different criteria, of the informants, force a structuring or organization of the contributed elements, in such circumstances that could imply contradictions or novelties of such type that have not been perceived or assumed within the characteristics of the institution to which they represent or where they work. Bautista (2011) locates the analysis as "the interpretation of the data collected in the course of all inquiries, which have been recorded in various instruments to facilitate their study." (p.187) it is essential to find new and unknown meanings, even not warned by the informants, which is normal to occur because of the many mental representations that people have and even the communities themselves. It goes without saying that not always a community or group is subjected to inquiries and to observations or interviews, in which spontaneity arises in the speaking and in the contribution of data.

For the purposes of the analysis, the categorization technique was used, with the grouping or conceptual classification of data into units or classes, their relationship to each other, their link with the objectives and the incidents or new, novel facts that emerged, which resulted in subcategories or the re-contextualization of information.

Pérez and Silva (2003: 8) warn about the handling of information:

The "Content Analysis" is configured as an objective, systematic, qualitative and quantitative technique that works with representative materials, marked by comprehensiveness and generalization possibilities. (p.13)

In this sense highlight the duty of the researcher to use procedures that can be reproduced in other investigations, subject the analysis to objective guidelines, use statistical elements if necessary, detect presence or absence of content characteristics, do not ignore the object of study and try the hypotheses, if outside the case.

Results

According to Palella and Martins, (2010) "once the values ​​taken by the categories and variables of the study (data) are collected, the analysis is carried out, which allows making assumptions and interpretations about the nature and significance of them in attention to the different types of information "(p.174). In other words, after the instruments were applied, the analysis was carried out, using the matrix Alpha and Beta whose author in Bahamonde (2015). Now, with what was previously stated in the design of the study, the research responds to the qualitative approach whereby two phases will be developed in the treatment of information.

In the first place, regarding the qualitative contributions in the study, the "Categorization, triangulation and theorization" was used. The categorization consists, according to González, (2010) in "Interpreting the discourse, observed situations, actions and even relevant gestures of the actors and assigning a code (term) or exhibitions that briefly present a clear idea of ​​the subject, thus generating the creation of paragraphs called categories "(p.91).

Categorization is a vital stage for research. Therefore, it was carried out by drawing up the tables containing the unit of analysis, the answers issued by the informants in each of the statements or topics addressed, social phenomena and the analysis or interpretation of the researcher.

The triangulation consists of according to González, (2010) "In giving data an interpretation from different perspectives, or visions contrasting them to find through interpretation the points of confluence in the information provided by the actors" (p.91).

In agreement, with González, (2010) "The triangulation can be presented in the form of tables or graphic scheme, posing in them the corroboration of the information, as deemed appropriate by the researcher in addition to presenting a sequential relationship with the order of the interview "(p.91). According to the information provided by González, (ob.cit) in the technique of triangulation can be used several ways to present it, the important thing the author considers is that the sequential relationship with the interview is maintained and that the information is allowed to contrast from various angles.

Taking into account, the previous recommendations were made to make the Beta matrix with the contentive tables, the transforming Social Phenomenon, the benefit, link, theory and theoretical approach, interpretation of the fact collected by the author, all this with the purpose of effectively to have a triangulated view of the interpretation of information.

Finally, the theorization will consist, according to González, (ob.cit) in "... integrating the results of the ongoing research into a coherent and logical whole, improving it with the contributions of the authors outlined in the theoretical referential framework" (p.92). In agreement, with the aspects established in the technique of information analysis, theorization is the final aspect of the treatment applied to the data collected in the interview (Vergel, Zafra, Martinez, 2016).

This process basically consists of the integration that is made to the analysis or rather to search between ideas or theories. In this regard, Martínez (2007) raises:

The theorization process uses all available means at its disposal, to achieve the final synthesis of a study or investigation. More specifically, this process tries to integrate the results of the research carried out into a coherent and logical whole, improving them with the contributions of the authors outlined in the theoretical framework, after the triangulation work. (p.189)

It means, according to the previous author, that this part of the investigation consisted in taking the results of categorization and triangulation to make the complete, detailed and coherent description of the phenomenon studied; that is, it seeks to understand what happened in the investigation through the analyses and interpretations, the observations and the recordings made in the interview; to such effects, these processes are carried out in two special moments: data analysis and theorization.

Figure 1: Summary Relevant Social Phenomenon

Source: self-made.

During the in-depth interviews it was possible to appreciate the existence of total consensus on the predominant role of the media in society, in the fact that there are distortions in ideas, thoughts and criteria for the audio-visual products that they broadcast to the public, the mercantile factor of which are covered by the costs, by the defence of the economic interests of the advertisers or sponsors, by the contempt of the positive cultural phenomena, by not generating or promoting spaces of participation between school and society and by being the epicentre of the techno scientific advances. The latter as an element that reinforces the importance and social impact.

Figure 2: Theoretical Projection

Source: self-made.

However, it is appreciated that all the interviewees are convinced that if an alliance between education and media can be articulated, to ensure that the educational content, or the teaching program, is not only an isolated cultural element, but a fundamental resource for apply daily in life in society.

 

Discussion

Theoretical systematization

According to Palella and Martins, (2010) "once the values ​​taken by the categories and variables of the study (data) are collected, the analysis is carried out, which allows making assumptions and interpretations about the nature and significance of them in attention to the different types of information "(p.174). In other words, after the instruments were applied, the analysis was carried out, using the matrix Alpha and Beta whose author in Bahamonde (2015). Now, with what was previously stated in the design of the study, the research responds to the qualitative approach whereby two phases will be developed in the treatment of information.

In the first place, regarding the qualitative contributions in the study, the "Categorization, triangulation and theorization" was used. The categorization consists, according to González, (2010) in "Interpreting the discourse, observed situations, actions and even relevant gestures of the actors and assigning a code (term) or exhibitions that briefly present a clear idea of ​​the subject, thus generating the creation of paragraphs called categories "(Porta, 2015, p.91).

Categorization is a vital stage for research. Therefore, it was carried out by drawing up the tables containing the unit of analysis, the answers issued by the informants in each of the statements or topics addressed, social phenomena and the analysis or interpretation of the researcher.

  The triangulation consists of according to González, (2010) "In giving data an interpretation from different perspectives, or visions contrasting them to find through interpretation the points of confluence in the information provided by the actors" (p.91).

In agreement, with González, (2010) "The triangulation can be presented in the form of tables or graphic scheme, posing in them the corroboration of the information, as deemed appropriate by the researcher in addition to presenting a sequential relationship with the order of the interview "(p.91). According to the information provided by González, (2010) in the technique of triangulation can be used several ways to present it, the important thing the author considers is that the sequential relationship with the interview is maintained and that the information is allowed to contrast from various angles.

Taking into account, the previous recommendations were made to make the Beta matrix with the contentive tables, the transforming Social Phenomenon, the benefit, link, theory and theoretical approach, interpretation of the fact collected by the author, all this with the purpose of effectively to have a triangulated view of the interpretation of information.

Finally, the theorization will consist, according to González (2010) in "... integrating the results of the ongoing research into a coherent and logical whole, improving it with the contributions of the authors outlined in the theoretical referential framework" (p.92). In agreement, with the aspects established in the technique of information analysis, theorization is the final aspect of the treatment applied to the data collected in the interview. This process basically consists of the integration that is made to the analysis or rather to search between ideas or theories. In this regard, Rey (2012) y Martínez (2007) raises:

The theorization process uses all available means at its disposal, to achieve the final synthesis of a study or investigation. More specifically, this process tries to integrate the results of the research carried out into a coherent and logical whole, improving them with the contributions of the authors outlined in the theoretical framework, after the triangulation work. (p.189)

It means, according to the previous author, that this part of the investigation consisted in taking the results of categorization and triangulation to make the complete, detailed and coherent description of the phenomenon studied; that is, it seeks to understand what happened in the investigation through the analyses and interpretations, the observations and the recordings made in the interview; to such effects, these processes are carried out in two special moments: data analysis and theorization.

Conclusions

The educational conceptualization handled in the media by the educational actors reveal that there is awareness in them of the important transforming role of education, but that they do not appreciate that the media are concerned with projecting this importance and unless they open their spaces for new programming, because the media purpose is commercial and not social. However, there is willingness and openness to dialogue.

On the media side there is no definite conception of their role to join education in the transforming role of society and the belief that it is educators who must carry out programs or develop communication products to reinforce formal education. In this case, the participant observation served to make them understand that from the media side should arise their own initiatives because the current laws force the development of contents that enhance the values ​​and knowledge disseminated by education. That is to say that for all it is very convenient to integrate the purposes of each other.

The friendly relations between the people of the media and the leaders of educational centres, the fact of the great ease of access or closeness, the simple life in a small community and the constant interaction of each other in coinciding areas, offers us encouraging perspectives. To carry out innovative initiatives, in the search of what should be the means to achieve that better quality of life for all, which is, after all, also the object of the national society.

Regarding the educational actions from the media, it was found that a rural educational centre produces a radio space, once a week, while a high school produces a digital newspaper, occasionally, which does not configure an educational impact plan. But it is about isolated initiatives in search of projection of the schools.

As recommendations:

The media exerts precisions on the communicational agents that foster the mental universe of the new generations and sheds light that facilitates understanding the omnimo role of the media in front of the audiences conformed by new generations, the same ones that are attended in schools, lyceums, schools or schools that are the object of our attention. Therefore, joint work between actors from the educational communities and the media is required.

At an educational level offer training and participation spaces to teachers and students in proposed or generation of communication spaces beyond the radio programs.

 

 

 

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