Photographs as a pedagogical tool to strengthen the                                          reading and writing competences *

 

Las fotografías como herramienta pedagógica para fortalecer las competencias lectora y escritora

 

 

Leonardo Alexis Vera Romero **

José Julio Allende Hernández ***

Yolanda Villamizar de Camperos ****

 

Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga**

 Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla ***

Universidad de Pamplona****

 

 


Date Received: January 10, 2018

Date of Acceptance: March 03 of 2018

Publication Date: July 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22335/rlct.v10i4.609

 

The article result of the research "Photographs as a pedagogical tool for the development of reading and writing competence in the ninth grade "E"students of the Municipal Educational Institution María Concepción Loperena of the city of San José de Cúcuta" Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga Year 2018.

**Master of arts. Specialist in pedagogy of language and literature, Colombia. Affiliation: Autonomous University of Santander. Email: leavero73@gmail.com Orcid: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1947-3732

*** Doctor in Education. Affiliation: Popular Autonomous University of the State of Puebla, Mexico. Email: allendeherjul@gmail.com Orcid: JAH1962 #

**** Master in Education with Emphasis in Cognition, Affiliation: Teaching at the faculty of education, Department of Spanish Language and Communication. University of Pamplona, ​​Colombia. Email: yolandav8@gmail.com.

translated by: Leidy Yaneth Osorio Rubio. Bachelor in English- French. University of Pamplona. Colombia

 

 

Abstract

The objective of this research was: Strengthen the reading and writing skills of ninth grade students of the Municipal Educational Institution María Concepción Loperena through the implementation of workshops with photographic texts mediated by ICT through a pedagogical model based on learning under the cognitive approach whose most relevant exponents for this study were Ausubel, Vygotsky and Bruner, also from the concept of visual literacy addressed by Arheim and Gardner, emphasizing a methodology of the scope of competencies.

The research was qualitative, action research, applied to a sample of 36 students who were intervened through the implementation of eight workshops with photographs mediated by ICT, including free photographic platforms: Pinterest and Pixabay, which allowed transformation processes in the classroom, making classes more participatory and active in the development of visual literacy with all the cognitive processes of perception, attention, memory, language and thought, enhancing the scope of reading and writing skills.

In turn, the photographs used as a pedagogical tool allowed the attainment of the proposed objectives, an improvement in the academic performance and a high degree of motivation towards the work of the class in the area of ​​language and led to autonomy, responsibility and critical sense of the student.

Keywords: Photography, ICT, competences, reading, writing, meaningful learning, collaborative, discovery.

 

Resumen

El objetivo de esta investigación fue: Fortalecer las competencias lectora y escritora de los estudiantes de Grado noveno de la Institución Educativa Municipal María Concepción Loperena a través de la implementación de  Talleres con textos fotográficos mediados por TIC mediante un modelo pedagógico basado en el aprendizaje bajo el  enfoque  cognitivo cuyos exponentes más relevantes para este estudio fueron Ausubel, Vygotsky y Bruner, igualmente desde el concepto de  alfabetización visual   abordado por Arheim y Gardner, enfatizando una metodología del alcance de competencias.

La investigación fue de tipo cualitativa, investigación acción, aplicada a una muestra de 36 estudiantes  que fueron intervenidos mediante la  implementación de ocho talleres con fotografías mediadas por las Tic, entre ellas plataformas de imágenes fotográficas gratuitas: Pinterest y Pixabay, que permitieron procesos de transformación en el aula, haciendo las clases más participativas y activas en el desarrollo de la alfabetización visual con todos los procesos cognitivos de percepción, atención, memoria, lenguaje y pensamiento, potenciando el alcance las competencias lectora y escritora.

A su vez, las fotografías utilizadas como herramienta pedagógica permitieron la consecución de los objetivos propuestos, un mejoramiento en el rendimiento académico y un alto grado de motivación hacia el trabajo de la clase en el área del lenguaje y propició la autonomía, la responsabilidad y el sentido crítico del estudiante.

Palabras clave: 

Fotografía, TIC, competencias, lectura, escritura, aprendizaje significativo, colaborativo, por descubrimiento.

Resumo

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi: Para reforçar as competências de leitura e escritor de estudantes na nona série da Escola Municipal María Concepción Loperena através da implementação de oficinas com textos fotográficas meados de TIC através de um modelo de ensino baseado na aprendizagem, sob a abordagem cognitiva cujos expoentes mais relevantes para este estudo foram Ausubel, Vygotsky e Bruner, também a partir do conceito de letramento visual abordado por Arheim e Gardner, enfatizando uma metodologia do escopo de competências.

A pesquisa foi do tipo qualitativa, pesquisa-ação, aplicado a uma amostra de 36 estudantes que foram operados através da implementação de oito oficinas fotografias mediadas pelas TIC, incluindo plataformas de imagens fotográficas livres: Pinterest e Pixabay que permitiram processos de transformação na sala de aula, fazendo aulas mais participativa e activa no desenvolvimento de literacia visual com todos os processos cognitivos de percepção, atenção, memória, linguagem e pensamento, aumentando a extensão das competências do leitor e escritor.

Por sua vez, as fotografias utilizadas como uma ferramenta de ensino permitiu a realização dos objectivos propostos, uma melhoria no desempenho acadêmico e um alto grau de motivação para o trabalho de classe na área de linguagem e levou a autonomia, responsabilidade e senso crítico do aluno.

Palavras chave:

Fotografia, TIC, habilidades, leitura, escrita, aprendizado significativo, colaboração, descoberta

Introduction

Understanding photography as a dialogue gives the observer, who reads a photo, a new importance: The meaning of the image is personal, and the possibilities of altering the message move away from the photographic reading work of passivity. To the extent that the observer understands himself as co-creator, we will be faced with a fact of reading that opens up to potentiality, to multiplication. It is not only about what the author wanted to say, but what the reader received and what he has to say to the photographer. (Colorado, 2014)

The present research precisely ventures into the field of photography as a pedagogical  tool, which was worked with ICTs, for the strengthening of reading and writing  Competence  in the students of the 9th grade E of the Municipal Educational Institution María Concepción Loperena of the municipality of San  José of Cúcuta, through  eight (8) Photo Reading and Textual Production Workshops.

 

It arose as a response to the researcher's concern to find creative and innovative answers to a problem regarding the low results of students in the area of Language, both internal and external. The interns results evidenced by the academic reports for periods of the students and the external ones having as reference the Saber 9 tests in the years 2016 and 2017 that bimonthly per student that the Ministry of National Education (MEN) reports in the document Synthetic Index of Educational Quality (ISCE) and where the difficulty of the students for the development of reading and writing skills is demonstrated.

The research was conducted with the purpose of transforming the attitude of both the teacher and the students; that is, in terms of how language is taught and how it is learned. Its fundamental objective was to strengthen reading and writing skills, diagnosing, designing and implementing workshops with photographic texts that would allow students to develop denotation and connotation, and consequently reading levels with their semantic, syntactic and pragmatic components, evidenced in the lessons learned and evaluated.

It was sought that photographic texts allow improving visual literacy and perception, to get to communicate, interpret, argue, value, produce, create and evidence readings and texts. The previous thing after a process of remembrance of previous learning, of socialization, of discovery of the elements of the photographic language. The graphic proposed in 2014 by Professor Oscar Colorado, Professor of Advanced Photography at the Panamerican University of Mexico, taking into account the studies of Dr. Cinthya Way of the International Center of Photography in New York, United States, is taken into account. Dr. Javier Marzal Felici from the University of Jaume I in Spain. There are 54 elements, distributed in seven (7) groups and that in his article in the digital magazine Canva (2014) "Reasons why it is urgent to teach photography in schools", raises questions such as What do you think about the need to include photography in basic education? Do you think it's feasible? What challenges do we face? Why had not it been done before? Share your opinion and let's open the dialogue. According to the above, a detailed study of said Table is made to design the present proposal and apply it to the students of Grade 9 ° E, with the aim of innovating and creating new strategies for the learning of the reading of discontinuous texts or not. verbal and the writing of various types of texts such as stories, tales, letters, autobiographies, news and poems.

The elements are structured in Seven (7) groups and (54) elements, as follows:

Denotation: Photographic attributes: light, focus, time, movement, point of view, framing, trimming, technique, support, texture, sharpness, chromatism;

Composition: shape, line, angle, color, tone, contrast, depth, design, perspective, rhythm, proportion, golden points, visual tour, dynamism;

Content: subject, background, foreground, people, history, feeling, metaphor, speech, narrative, textual marks;

Style and gender: style, gender, subgenre; Connotation.

Authorship: author, period, school, current, inter-textual dialogue, confluences;

Intention: intention, purpose, concept, idea, friction, dissemination, reception and,

Semiotic Elements: icon, sign, symbol, index (index).

An initial diagnostic test was carried out to verify that previous knowledge the students had regarding this topic and what competences associated with it they were capable of developing. A survey was applied in order to measure their interests in reading and writing and what motivation exists towards the use of ICTs. At the same time, we wanted to measure the influence of ICT on the pedagogical aspects of teachers at the secondary level. From this reflection emerged questions such as: How to change this academic reality ?, How to achieve motivating environments in the classroom ?, How can innovate in the pedagogical practice? How to strengthen literacy skills? And in response to these, eight workshops are designed and implemented that take into account the above considerations.

The research was based on the framework of the cognitive pedagogical model appropriated by the Educational Institution in its Institutional Educational Project, both in the meaningful learning theory of Ausubel that considers that learning occurs when the new information is incorporated substantively; as Vygotsky's sociocultural model that gives the teacher an essential role to consider as facilitating the development of mental structures in the student so that he is able to build more complex learning and emphasizes the importance of social interaction, considering that the student learns more effectively when it does cooperatively.

But also to Brunner who raises the learning by discovery in which the student learns for himself; that is, a guided discovery that takes place during an exploration motivated by curiosity, providing the appropriate material and in this case the workshops with photographs to stimulate visual reading in students through strategies of observation, comparison, analysis, among other cognitive processes and the students will discover the various elements of the photographic language in an active and constructive way. In fact, the material provided by the teacher constitutes what Bruner calls scaffolding.

The study is developed under a process of action research, taking as sample the 36 students of grade 9 E of the Educational Institution and using instruments of information collection such as direct observation, questionnaires, initial and final diagnostic tests, field diary and interviews open to students.

The intervention of the proposal consisted of the design and implementation of eight (8) Reading Workshops of photographic texts mediated by the ICT, as follows: Workshop 1 The photographic image; Workshop 2 The wonderful narrative world Part I; Workshop 3 The wonderful narrative world Part II; Workshop 4 We create stories with a lot of photoimaging; Workshop 5 Let's read pictures and write letters; Workshop 6 Let's write our photo-autobiography; Workshop 7 Let's write a story interpreting photographs and Workshop 8 Let's be poetic with photographs. In the Workshops and in all classes, a motivation phase begins, one to four photographs are visualized with the support of the video beam, explored on the Pixabay or Pinterest online platforms, knowing their author and inherent characteristics of the photographs , the 54 elements of the photographic language are discovered.

Communication, interpretation, argumentation, assessment and proposal activities are developed, through questions and finally leading the students to develop the processes of denotation and connotation, basic concepts that are handled during all the workshops and that finally improve the levels of reading, by identifying both explicit and implicit content of a photographic text and relating them to other communication contexts. They also create texts inspired by the photographs according to each workshop. At the end of each workshop, the interpretation is fed back with the application of a file or guide created by the author of the project, in which by means of a photograph the presence or absence of the specifications and parameters of each element is discovered and identified, in order to facilitate and verify the understanding in the photographic reading.

 

Methodology

The present investigation of the photographs which were worked with ICTs as pedagogical tool  to strengthen the reading and writing competencies in students of  9 ° E, of the Municipal Educational Institution María Concepción Loperena of the Municipality of San José de Cúcuta, was carried out by means of an action research process, which aims to improve the reading and interpretation of photographic images through eight (8) workshops implemented in the classroom. The work with the group of students of 9 ° E was developed based on action research, starting from a concrete reality such as the difficulty in interpreting and writing texts. According to the analysis of this problem, a design was built and eight (8) workshops were planned, which demanded a group action of all those involved, configuring the cycle: planning, action, observation and reflection with the purpose of achieving improvement in the educational process and therefore in the achievement of proposed objectives.

 This study is defined under the cognitive pedagogical model being the theory of significant learning of David Ausubel who supports it in close union with the pedagogical model of Lev Vygotsky, "social constructivism" being based on a collaborative work because for Vygotsky integration social and language are fundamental in the achievement of individual learning. This will lead me to reaffirm that the work in collaborative groups allows the overcoming of weaknesses and is successful for the construction of learning.

Bruner's ideas are also taken into account by his learning by discovery. According to Guilar, (2009) in his article: Bruner's ideas: "from the cognitive revolution" to the"cultural revolution", he says that learning is based, according to the cognitive Bruner, in the categorization or processes by which we simplify the interaction with reality from the grouping of objects, events or concepts. The learner constructs knowledge (generates propositions, verifies hypotheses, makes inferences) according to their own categories that are modified by their interaction with the environment. It is because of all this that learning is an active process of association, construction and representation. The student's previous cognitive structure provides meaning, allows to organize their experiences and go beyond

the given information (Bruner, 1963). Learning is, I have said, an active process of association, construction and, also, representation.

Likewise, the present proposal is based on the concept of visual literacy, which following Way (2006), is the ability to read or decode visual images; is "The use and transformation of various types of symbols" (Gardner, 1990, p.9, cited by Way). These symbols are articulated through the visual language of the art form: it is formal, technical and expressive qualities. We interpret visual images with our senses, our emotions and our minds. Many researchers have described how this interaction with art is a cognitive activity. As Rudolf Arnheim states in Visual Thinling (Visual Thought) "Perception is visual thinking" (1969, p.14, cited by Way) And, he continues, "the arts are the most powerful means to strengthen the perceptual component without which thought is impossible in any field of effort "(p.3). When we say that students, "Come photographically" and have developed "visual literacy skills," we mean that in their photographs and responses, they demonstrate that they have developed perception and thinking skills to understand how the sense of the visual image is communicated. Visual literacy leads to a rich understanding of the arts in terms of perception and creation. This results in a connection with the legacy of the arts and the power of art as a way to communicate the values, aspirations and conflicts in our lives and throughout human history. Developing visual literacy skills at school is an essential way to prepare young people to contribute to our global society. (Way, 2006).

Therefore, eight (8) Photo Reading and Text Production Workshops are designed and implemented, which were worked with ICTs, applied to the 9th grade E of the María Concepción Loperena Municipal Educational Institution of the municipality of San  José de Cúcuta. Once in the first Workshop "The photographic image" the students can introduce themselves in the observation of three very colorful photographs, observing and describing with their previous knowledge the form or structure of the same. They also become familiar with the concepts: denotation and connotation, incorporating themselves by means of questions in the analysis; interpreting, arguing, valuing and proposing themes, contents, texts, feelings, thoughts, expectations, wishes, inventions and projections around photographs. In the second Workshop "The wonderful photo narrative world Part I" can explore the iconic, indexical, arbitrary and symbolic signifiers (Cardozo, Vergel, Zafra, 2016). And from the third to the last workshop, discover the elements of the photographic language proposed by Professor Colorado in his Table, inspired by the Focus on Photography Project: a curricular guide by Dr. Cynthia Way of the International Center of Photography in New York and a methodological proposal for the analysis of a photographic image of Doctor Javier Marzal Felici of the University of Jaume I of Spain and personal contributions of the manager of the proposal.

The purpose is that at the end of the project students will be able to read with more certainty a discontinuous or non-verbal text and in this case a photograph, supported by the 54 elements of the photographic language, some denotative as the photographic, composition and content attributes and other connotatives such as style and gender, authorship, intention and semiotic elements.

Likewise, mediated by the Communication and Information Technologies, since in the lesson events, two virtual platforms of free photographic images are used online that are projected and visualized in the synthetic board and thus with the participation of all, to identify previous knowledge but also sign representations and, therefore, recognize the reality reflected in the photographs, but also the interpretation of the universe of the image.

In order to achieve the proposed objectives, the action research process is based on a diagnosis of the level of the ninth grade "E" students in terms of the communicative skills they wish to strengthen, especially the reader and writer. For this purpose, three written diagnostic tests will be applied to demonstrate the management of these competences, as well as to identify what previous knowledge evidences ninth-grade students in relation to the levels and use of reading strategies, the use of writing strategies and the use of the photographs in the previous processes.

During this first phase a questionnaire was applied to the students, in order to identify the level and interest in reading and writing, the same thing was wanted to explore if in the previous degree the teachers who had the subjects used in their classes with ICT as an innovative tool and facilitator of learning and in turn, what perception or degree of interest do they have regarding the use of technology in the development of the classes. A questionnaire was also applied to teachers on the use of reading and writing and the implementation of ICT in the development of their classes, both in preparation and in execution. The parents were also tested with the purpose of knowing levels, interests, use of tic, accompaniment in their homes in the mentioned competences and identifying difficulties in their family context and that may affect or strengthen the reading and writing processes in their children.

Design of the proposal: Various bibliographical sources were looked up on the subject of photography, reading, interpretation and analysis of photographs, free image bank, among others and eight (8) Workshops were developed, which were:

Reading workshops and textual production.

There are eight (8) workshops that were developed, following a sequence. At the beginning the presentation of the Workshop with its title, standard, basic right of learning, competence, processes, component, learning and evidence. Then the activities, starting from the Comunica and that serves as an introduction to the Workshop. Followed by the motivation to project with the video beam the photographs of the Workshop, of the Pinterest or Pixabay platforms, identifying the entry link, observing the photograph and recognizing its author and specifications of the photograph as camera, type of image, date of loaded to the platform, resolution, downloads, views, among others; and in which they can access more photographs loaded by the author (photographer). In the first two Workshops: (1) "The photographic image" and (2) "The wonderful photonarrative world" Part I, is an introduction to the world of photography and basic concepts to interpret photography as its elements (table) denotation, connotation, écfrasis, among others and three photographs are interpreted at a general level. In the other workshops from (3) to (8): (3) "The wonderful photonational world Part II", (4) "We create stories with a lot of photoimaging", (5) "Let's read pictures and write letters", (6) "Let's write our photo-autobiography", (7) "Let's write a news story interpreting photographs", (8) "Let's be poetically sensitive with photographs", some elements taken from the mentioned table of various groups are analyzed and interpreted, from seven (7) to fifteen ( 15) as is the case with the last workshop.

 


Figura 1  Visual literacy.  Source: Authors

 

After analyzing the activity of the Communica and observing the photographs, we move on to the development of the activities: Denote, where the concept of écfrasis is handled, tell what is, through one or more questions. For example, in Workshop 3 the elements are described: light, movement, sharpness, shape, color, subject, background and foreground. Then the Connota where it presents the activities of the Interpretation, Arguments, Values and Proposes. Here by means of questions the students are contextualizing the theme of the Workshop, they reflect and analyze the photography to finally produce a text according to the requirements of the workshop, which approach what is a narrative text, story, or letter, autobiography, news, poetry. It should be noted that in Workshop Six (6) students present their photographs, taken from family albums or their cell phones but printed and in color. Also in all workshops there is an ICT Competition activity.

In the first two the Gmail mail is created with the purpose of digitizing the texts once they are created in class by hand and then sent to the teacher.

At the end of each workshop a feedback activity is done as closure, applying a file or guide prepared by the author of the project in order to facilitate the reading and interpretation of the photographs in which everyone participates.

Implementation

Once the problem that was the subject of this work was identified, a dialogue was held with Mr. Principal of the high school, the coordinator and the teachers of the area, in order to raise awareness and

ask for their collaboration to carry out this work.In the same way we talked with the students of the mentioned degree to explain the proposal, how it was going to be developed and the benefit that could be obtained if we all worked together in order to reach the proposed objectives.

With the Grade 9 ° E the proposal was implemented according to the established schedule, in the classroom and in the library using the video beam and computers in some cases that the institution has. The material of color photocopies on average eight (8) sheets per workshop were provided free of charge to the 36 students by the project manager.



Figura 2  Textual guide.  Source: Authors


Categories

The categories that were taken into account for the analysis of the information were shown in Graph 1 and as a qualitative research the NVivo software was used, a tool that is designed to help organize, analyze and find perspectives in unstructured data or qualitative, such as: interviews, survey responses with open questions, articles, content from social networks and the web.

Table 1.

Categories

Categories

Subcategories

Photography

 

Elements

Significants

Innovations

Reading competence

Denotation

Connotation

Writing competence

Write

Learning

Objectives

Motivation

Students

Feelings

Pedagogic proposal

Previous knowledge

Workshops

Collaborative work

Source: Authors

 

Assessment

At the end of the application of all the workshops, they were evaluated with visual and written tests created by the author of this research project, to demonstrate the learning. In the first, the literal level is handled, in the second the inferential level and from the third the three levels, including the critical, as a description of the elements seen in the selected photograph of the same Workshops and as a picture in a sheet. However, a final test was done when the project was completed, which assessed both the reading and writing competence, consisting of observing, analyzing, interpreting and describing the various elements of the table of the photographic language.

 

Teacher's reflection

Currently the Ministry of National Education promotes the National Reading and Writing Plan, accompanied by strategies such as Leer es mi Cuento, National Short Story Contest and Reading Marathons, campaigns that year after year manages to promote reading and writing skills in children and young people from Colombia. Continuing with this purpose, we wanted to promote a project in which, with a pedagogical classroom strategy, we continue to stimulate not only the study of language but also the enjoyment of reading and writing texts with imagination, creativity, motivation and enjoyment of aesthetics. of literature and art.

Oscar Colorado states in his article "Reasons why it is urgent to teach photography in schools" in Canva, a digital magazine (2014), that in the current crisis of education, photography could be a surprising and accessible formula. And some of the reasons that it manifests are; That photography is the best opportunity for the education of the future, produces good readers, teaches to learn, is a means of expression and self-knowledge, is an integral part of socialization, is an opportunity to explore the world, generates positive habits, more accessible than never and offers a modernized education. Also at the end of his article raises some questions that I also intend to check at the end of this research: What do you think about the need to include photography in basic education? Do you think it's feasible? What challenges do we face? Why had not it been done before? Share your opinion and let's open the dialogue. According to the above reasons, it is intended in the present investigation to design and implement a proposal to see if it really has a strong impact, especially in the development of reading and writing competence.

And therefore, aware of the difficulties in these competences, the present pedagogical strategy inspired by ICT -with photographic images has been designed to guide and motivate students to observe, read and interpret photographic texts and produce texts using ICTs tools. , through a continuous practice, based on the principle of "learning by doing" and "learning by discovering", by means of created generating questions, based on the Table of 54 elements of the photographic language (Colorado, 2014), that allows the development of the communicative competences: reader and writer, and enables them to analyze photographs and produce various texts that correctly express the meaning of this work.

The present pedagogical strategy of workshops with photographic images of reading and textual production through ICTs is fundamental, since through photographic training we hope to help the development of learning skills such as critical thinking, creative thinking, communication and collaboration. This means that students read visually, moving their eyes to go through the scene and identify the point of interest, read for longer periods, with more attention and less fatigue. (Colorado, Canva 2014) Through the reading of photographs, you can enhance the ability to learn, develop perceptual speed, spatial visualization, inductive reasoning, decision making, numerical aptitude, creativity, communication and socialization, among others.

In the same way the accessibility of photography today more than ever is one of the most accessible tools in the world. Practically everyone has a camera in their hands and does photography, but we must teach how to read and interpret them.

Quoted by Colorado, Lászlo Moholy-Nagy (1930) a Bauhaus professor of photography, said that the illiterate of the future would be those who could not use a photographic device with the same fluency as a pen. That which sounded like nonsense in 1930, is a reality today. We are a society equipped with feathers and riddled with visual illiterates. People have a camera, aim, raise an image, but do not know how to take a photo, let alone read it.

 

Discussion

The analysis of the field diary revealed six emerging categories: Photography, Reading, Writing, Learning, Student and Pedagogical Proposal. The cloud shows the importance and frequency of words in the observation discourse based on Photography as a basic methodology for the development of reading and writing skills, associated with words such as students, elements, learning, signifiers, reading, answers, are emerging categories of first level or families. A second level is comprised of categories that are associated with feelings, teacher, process, writing, happiness, family, objective. A third level of indicators is related to environment, language, personal, textual, symbol, color, thought, technique, connotation, contrast, purpose, focus, moment, writing, activity. A fourth level is associated with communication, horizontal, intention, clarity, concept, content, information, interpretation, characteristics, nature, meaning.

Figure 3.  Word frequency analysis. Source: Authors

 

In the conceptual analysis of the subcategories, the main factor is photography and students, associated with the reading of the different elements and the writing of texts, through the workshops with their learning and where the questions prevail, adding to it the answers full of feelings towards their parents, the family and the analysis of the signifiers of each of the images with their elements such as shape, point, movement, symbol, among others.

Figure 4  Analysis of subcategories.  Source: Authors

 

Conclusions

The project had a great impact on reading and writing skills as pedagogical practice was strengthened by implementing a series of workshops with photography as its protagonist and creative activator, by dynamizing the processes and activities of observation, interpretation, description and especially denotative processes and connotative of the language, taking as reference the Graph  of the elements of the photographic language presented by Professor Colorado (2014).

Likewise, the students were attracted by the development of processes of this area, breaking the apathy that has been generated over time and the bad teaching practices, as evidenced by the comments written in the final interview.

The use of photography in the lesson (as a resource) positively transformed the pedagogical process by becoming an innovative, updated and contextualized resource at the present time of visual advances as well as developing reading and writing skills.

The methodology of action research allowed improving the pedagogical practice in terms of learning and strengthening reading and writing. This strategy impacted not only on learning but also on the student's attitude towards academic processes.

The comparison of the results of the initial and final tests allowed us to observe a significant change in the mastery of reading levels and writing processes, shown in the processes of denotation and connotation of photographs, since they retrieve information both explicitly and implicit in the contents of photographic texts, identifying elements, characteristics or specifications, iconic, indexical, symbolic and arbitrary signifiers, identify intentions and purposes, elaborate global reading hypotheses about photographic texts that read, identify components or structures, evaluate information who presents the photograph; they deduce information and recognize strategies of the photographic texts they read.

On the other hand, choose content or chords to produce certain texts worked on the proposal, identify purposes that a text must have to meet the conditions of the context, select ideas to start, give continuity or close a writing, choose connectors that give cohesion to their ideas, adapt the texts to the context. Although there is difficulty in the development of textual plans and the proper use of grammar and spelling.

On the other hand, choose content or chords topics to produce certain texts worked on the proposal, identify purposes that a text must have to meet the conditions of the context, select ideas to start, give continuity or close a writing, choose connectors that give cohesion to their ideas, adapt the texts to the context. Although there is difficulty in the development of textual plans and the proper use of grammar and spelling.

During the pedagogical times, the young people maintained a positive and dynamic attitude towards the reading of photography and the subsequent activity of textual production. Throughout the activities students are cooperatively integrated to share ideas about the photographs and produce answers to the questions created, both in the communication process and interpretation, argumentation, evaluation and proposition of the workshops.

The development of communicative skills has been potentiated, students are more critical, express themselves with the photographic language, interpret situations of context, detail and describe the various elements.

Another fundamental aspect resulting from the implementation of the proposal is the evidence of the feelings of the students in almost all the workshops, since they identify with some of the characters or subjects of the photograph or aspects or situations. They personally position themselves in the denoted scene and introduce themselves in their memories, previous knowledge or previous apprenticeships and then describe with happiness, happiness, sadness, attachment, anger, fears concerns, among others, their points of view, perspectives, meanings and in a word all the possible connotations that the photograph projects.

Product of the initial process of the methodology applied in the first workshops, as author of the project create a card to read a photographic text with its specifications (See Annex 18) taking into account the element, technical parameter, specifications and whether or not there is presence this characteristic, with the purpose of making easy the process of visual literacy, perception, discovery and understanding of photography and to denote and connote and consequently develop the levels of literal, inferential and critical reading, represented in the identification and recognition of explicit and implicit contents of a photograph. After this process, assessments of reading comprehension and visual literacy of photographs were created, taking some elements by workshop, taking into account that in the end the 54 elements proposed by Colorado (2014) were evaluated in the corresponding Graphic indicated.

Digital photography is of great importance for the development of the class, counting on the online internet network, because through free image platforms such as Pixabay and Pinterest, visualization, perception, reasoning, decision-making, numerical aptitude, imagination, creativity, exploration, discovery, socialization, expression, self-knowledge, ability to work. Likewise most students have a camera in their hands incorporated into their cell phone, a situation that makes the present proposal significant enough, and hence the essential thing, of being able to read their photographs, which are taken at every moment but also the photographs shared by all social networks and other media.

Students show a positive attitude to work, responsible and critical of their own learning. I consider that when there is an affective implication this manifests itself in a positive disposition to learning, allowing to achieve a meaningful learning.

Teamwork allows to assume roles among students who are the protagonists of learning, they communicate their experience, cooperate in order to give a happy ending to all the activities oriented and improve socio-affective relationships, influencing positive learning environments (citizen competencies); that is, the classwork is highlighted by an atmosphere of group empathy.

 

Recommendations

Promoting the strategy as a didactic activity of continuous use will allow teachers the achievement of learning and development of reading and writing skills in students.

The inclusion of photographs in the classroom for the improvement of educational environments.

Encourage an institutional policy on the use of photographic texts as a pedagogical tool to support all other disciplines of knowledge in order to improve academic processes.

Socialize the present proposal at the national level from the Ministry of National Education and why not say it in international instances, since in the educational institutions little is implemented this type of proposals and the impact in applying it is fundamental for the visual literacy process in the human being.

References

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