Actualización sindrome de estres tibial medial.

Santiago Gomez Garcia

Resumen


RESUMEN

El síndrome de estrés tibial medial, es una de las causas más comunes de dolor inducido por el ejercicio en las extremidades inferiores entre los practicantes de actividad física y deporte, es un evento semiológico producido por lesiones repetitivas de estrés mecánico en la región medial de la tibia, frecuente entre las patologías que afectan a los corredores y militares en formación; generalmente no suele ser grave, pero si no se trata adecuadamente puede evolucionar a lesiones incapacitantes como la llamada fractura por estrés de la tibia. Existen factores de riesgo que contribuyen al desarrollo de la patología entre los que cabe mencionar  el tipo de actividad, las inadecuadas técnicas de entrenamiento,  las condiciones del terreno y el tipo de calzado utilizado, también la pronación anormal de la articulación subastragalina, el sexo femenino, un índice de masa corporal elevado, así como la disminución de la densidad mineral ósea.

El diagnóstico generalmente se establece a través del interrogatorio y el examen físico ya que las radiografías no aportan datos de interés, solamente sirven para establecer el diagnóstico diferencial con las fracturas por estrés de la tibia y exámenes de imágenes más costosos no se justifican. 

El tiempo de recuperación de los afectados por esta patología es bastante prolongado, existiendo la tendencia al abandono, impidiendo así conseguir los objetivos terapéuticos propuestos, el tratamiento gold estándar es la terapia física, sin embargo, existen otras modalidades terapéuticas con grandes perspectivas para el tratamiento de esta entidad patológica entre las que sobresale la terapia por ondas de choque extracorpórea, y aunque existen estudios científicos a respecto, no son suficientes,  tanto la fisiopatología, como la prevención y el tratamiento aún no están claros. Debido a lo anteriormente expuesto se realiza una revisión del estado del arte de los aspectos fundamentales de la patología.

 


Palabras clave


Síndrome de estrés tibial medial, lesión por estrés tibial, dolor en extremidades inferiores, actualización, deporte, rehabilitación, fisioterapia.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22335/rlct.v6i3.22

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